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Neuroendocrine regulation of innate lymphoid cells

Neuroendocrine regulation of innate lymphoid cells

Immunological Reviews 286(1): 120-136

The activities of the immune system in repairing tissue injury and combating pathogens were long thought to be independent of the nervous system. However, a major regulatory role of immunomodulatory molecules released locally or systemically by the neuroendocrine system has recently emerged. A number of observations and discoveries support indeed the notion of the nervous system as an immunoregulatory system involved in immune responses. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including natural killer (NK) cells and tissue-resident ILCs, form a family of effector cells present in organs and mucosal barriers. ILCs are involved in the maintenance of tissue integrity and homeostasis. They can also secrete effector cytokines rapidly, and this ability enables them to play early roles in the immune response. ILCs are activated by multiple pathways including epithelial and myeloid cell-derived cytokines. Their functions are also regulated by mediators produced by the nervous system. In particular, the peripheral nervous system, through neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, works in parallel with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axis to modulate inflammatory events and maintain homeostasis. We summarize here recent findings concerning the regulation of ILC activities by neuroendocrine mediators in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions.

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Accession: 065856791

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PMID: 30294960

DOI: 10.1111/imr.12707

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