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Progranulin associates with hexosaminidase a and ameliorates GM2 ganglioside accumulation and lysosomal storage in Tay-Sachs disease

Chen, Y.; Jian, J.; Hettinghouse, A.; Zhao, X.; Setchell, K.D.R.; Sun, Y.; Liu, C.-J.

Journal of Molecular Medicine 96(12): 1359-1373

2018


ISSN/ISBN: 1432-1440
PMID: 30341570
DOI: 10.1007/s00109-018-1703-0
Accession: 065890829

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a lethal lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by mutations in the HexA gene, which can lead to deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) activity and consequent accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside. Recent reports that progranulin (PGRN) functions as a chaperone of lysosomal enzymes and its deficiency is associated with LSDs, including Gaucher disease and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, prompted us to screen the effects of recombinant PGRN on lysosomal storage in fibroblasts from 11 patients affected by various LSDs, which led to the isolation of TSD in which PGRN demonstrated the best effects in reducing lysosomal storage. Subsequent in vivo studies revealed significant GM2 accumulation and the existence of typical TSD cells containing zebra bodies in both aged and ovalbumin-challenged adult PGRN-deficient mice. In addition, HexA, but not HexB, was aggregated in PGRN-deficient cells. Furthermore, recombinant PGRN significantly reduced GM2 accumulation and lysosomal storage in these animal models. Mechanistic studies indicated that PGRN bound to HexA through granulins G and E domain and increased the enzymatic activity and lysosomal delivery of HexA. More importantly, Pcgin, an engineered PGRN derivative bearing the granulin E domain, also effectively bound to HexA and reduced the GM2 accumulation. Collectively, these studies not only provide new insights into the pathogenesis of TSD but may also have implications for developing PGRN-based therapy for this life-threatening disorder. KEY MESSAGES: GM2 accumulation and the existence of typical TSD cells containing zebra bodies are detected in both aged and ovalbumin-challenged adult PGRN deficient mice. Recombinant PGRN significantly reduces GM2 accumulation and lysosomal storage both in vivo and in vitro, which works through increasing the expression and lysosomal delivery of HexA. Pcgin, an engineered PGRN derivative bearing the granulin E domain, also effectively binds to to HexA and reduces GM2 accumulation.

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