The effects of fish oil omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on mental health parameters and metabolic status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Amini, M.; Bahmani, F.; Foroozanfard, F.; Vahedpoor, Z.; Ghaderi, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Karbassizadeh, H.; Asemi, Z.
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2018: 1-9
ISSN/ISBN: 0167-482X PMID: 30230402 DOI: 10.1080/0167482x.2018.1508282
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fish oil omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on mental health parameters and metabolic status of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 women with PCOS, aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2 × 1000 mg/day fish oil omega-3 fatty acid (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) after lunch for 12 weeks. Metabolic profiles were quantified at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acid intake led to a significant improvement in Beck Depression Inventory [β (difference in the mean outcomes measures between treatment groups after intervention) -1.05; 95% CI: -1.84, -0.26; p = .01], general health questionnaire (β -1.68; 95% CI: -3.12, -0.24; p = .02) and depression anxiety and stress scale (β -2.03; 95% CI: -3.60, -0.46; p = .01). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly decreased serum insulin levels (β -2.09 µIU/mL; 95% CI: -3.77, -0.41; p = .01), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (β -0.74; 95% CI: -1.13, -0.34; p < .001), total testosterone (β -0.23 ng/mL; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.06; p = .03) and hirsutism (β -0.75; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.33; p = .001), and significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (β 0.01; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.02; p = .008) compared with the placebo. Additionally, omega-3 fatty acid intake resulted in a significant decrease in high sensitivity C-reactive protein (β -1.46 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.16, -0.75; p < .001) and malondialdehyde (β -0.28 µmol/L; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.05; p = .03); also significant rises in plasma total glutathione (β 59.09 µmol/L; 95% CI: 7.07, 111.11; p = .02) was observed compared with the placebo. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation did not change other metabolic parameters. Overall, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 12 weeks to patients with PCOS had beneficial effects on mental health parameters, insulin metabolism, total testosterone, hirsutism and few inflammatory markers and oxidative stress.