Relative Bioavailability of Orally Dispersible Tablet Formulations of Levo- and Racemic Praziquantel: two Phase i Studies
Bagchus, W.M.; Bezuidenhout, D.; Harrison-Moench, E.; Kourany-Lefoll, E.; Wolna, P.; Yalkinoglu, O.
Clinical and Translational Science 12(1): 66-76
ISSN/ISBN: 1752-8062 PMID: 30536632 DOI: 10.1111/cts.12601
Orally dispersible tablet (ODT) formulations of levo praziquantel (L-PZQ) and racemic PZQ (rac-PZQ) are being developed to treat schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children. Two crossover studies (N = 32 and 36, respectively) assessed the relative bioavailability of these ODTs vs. Cysticide in adults. Bioavailability for L-PZQ of ODT rac-PZQ and Cysticide at 40 mg/kg was comparable (L-PZQ area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞ ) test/reference ratio (90% confidence interval (CI)): 96% (84-111%)), whereas relative bioavailability of ODT L-PZQ 20 mg/kg was ~40% that of Cysticide 40 mg/kg (test/reference: 40% (35-46%)). AUC0-∞ and peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) were highly variable in both studies. For both ODTs, L-PZQ AUC0-∞ showed greater than dose-proportional increase over the ranges tested and a significant food effect. Safety was comparable among formulations. The lower bioavailability of ODT L-PZQ, as well as the high variability and nondose-proportionality of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, highlighted the need for a dedicated pediatric dose-finding study for the selection of the most appropriate formulation and dose (L-PZQ ODT or rac-PZQ ODT).