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A hierarchical machine learning classification approach for secondary task identification from observed driving behavior data

A hierarchical machine learning classification approach for secondary task identification from observed driving behavior data

Accident; Analysis and Prevention 123: 274-281

According to NHTSA, more than 3477 people (including 551 non-occupants) were killed and 391,000 were injured due to distraction-related crashes in 2015. The distracted driving epidemic has long been under research to identify its impact on driving behavior. There have been a few attempts to detect drivers' engagement in secondary tasks from observed driving behavior. Yet, to the authors' knowledge, not much effort has been directed to identify the types of secondary tasks from driving behavior parameters. This study proposes a bi-level hierarchical classification methodology using machine learning to identify the different types of secondary tasks drivers are engaged in using their driving behavior parameters. At the first level, drivers' engagement in secondary tasks is detected, while at the second level, the distinct types of secondary tasks are identified. Comparative evaluation is performed between nine ensemble tree classification methods to identify three types of secondary tasks (hand-held cellphone calling, cellphone texting, and interaction with an adjacent passenger). The inputs to the models are five driving behavior parameters (speed, longitudinal acceleration, lateral acceleration, pedal position, and yaw rate) along with their standard deviations. The results showed that the overall secondary task detection accuracy ranged from 66% to 96%, except for the Decision Tree that was able to detect engagement in secondary tasks with a high accuracy of 99.8%. For the identification of secondary tasks types, the overall accuracy ranged from 55% to 79%, with the highest accuracy of 82.2% achieved by the Random Forest method. The findings of the paper show the proposed methodology promising to (1) characterize drivers' engagement in unlawful secondary tasks (such as texting) as a counter measure to prevent crashes, and (2) alert drivers to pay attention back to the main driving task when risky changes to their driving behavior take place.

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Accession: 066010735

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30554059

DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.12.005

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