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Comparison of Isoflurane, Ketamine- Dexmedetomidine, and Ketamine-Xylazine for General Anesthesia during Oral Procedures in Rice Rats (Oryzomys palustris)



Comparison of Isoflurane, Ketamine- Dexmedetomidine, and Ketamine-Xylazine for General Anesthesia during Oral Procedures in Rice Rats (Oryzomys palustris)



Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 2018



Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are an unconventional laboratory species that has been used to study photoperiodicity,periodontitis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Interventional procedures that require anesthesia, including oral procedures, aresometimes necessary in preclinical settings. The use of anesthetics including isoflurane and ketamine combined with α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, such as dexmedetomidine and xylazine, is well-established for laboratory rodents. However, theireffects have been studied only modestly in rice rats. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the safety and consistencyof 3 common anesthetic modalities in rice rats; 2) compare the physiologic and clinical responses to these anesthetics, and 3)verify the effectiveness of the most successful modality by testing it during an oral procedure (tooth extraction). Isoflurane,intraperitoneal ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and intraperitoneal ketamine-xylazine were evaluated by using a crossoverdesign, in which each rat received all of the anesthetics. Compared with ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine,isoflurane inhalation through a nose cone produced more rapid induction, entry to a surgical plane of anesthesia, and initialrecovery. In addition, isoflurane produced optimal anesthesia throughout the procedure for most rats. Unlike ketamine-dexmedetomidineand ketamine-xylazine, isoflurane did not alter rectal temperature, SpO2, or respiratory rate during the surgicaltolerance period, whereas ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine decreased rectal temperature during the laststage of anesthesia and induced cardiorespiratory depression. Furthermore, 2 rats experienced negative outcomes warrantingeuthanasia: one after receiving ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and the other after ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. In conclusion,isoflurane was the most reliable and effective anesthetic in rice rats and maintained a surgical depth of anesthesia for as longas 30 min, thus supporting successful tooth extractions.

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Accession: 066027415

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30572978

DOI: 10.30802/aalas-jaalas-18-000032


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