+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Comparison of Isoflurane, Ketamine- Dexmedetomidine, and Ketamine-Xylazine for General Anesthesia during Oral Procedures in Rice Rats (Oryzomys palustris)

Comparison of Isoflurane, Ketamine- Dexmedetomidine, and Ketamine-Xylazine for General Anesthesia during Oral Procedures in Rice Rats (Oryzomys palustris)

Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 2018

Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are an unconventional laboratory species that has been used to study photoperiodicity,periodontitis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Interventional procedures that require anesthesia, including oral procedures, aresometimes necessary in preclinical settings. The use of anesthetics including isoflurane and ketamine combined with α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, such as dexmedetomidine and xylazine, is well-established for laboratory rodents. However, theireffects have been studied only modestly in rice rats. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the safety and consistencyof 3 common anesthetic modalities in rice rats; 2) compare the physiologic and clinical responses to these anesthetics, and 3)verify the effectiveness of the most successful modality by testing it during an oral procedure (tooth extraction). Isoflurane,intraperitoneal ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and intraperitoneal ketamine-xylazine were evaluated by using a crossoverdesign, in which each rat received all of the anesthetics. Compared with ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine,isoflurane inhalation through a nose cone produced more rapid induction, entry to a surgical plane of anesthesia, and initialrecovery. In addition, isoflurane produced optimal anesthesia throughout the procedure for most rats. Unlike ketamine-dexmedetomidineand ketamine-xylazine, isoflurane did not alter rectal temperature, SpO2, or respiratory rate during the surgicaltolerance period, whereas ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine decreased rectal temperature during the laststage of anesthesia and induced cardiorespiratory depression. Furthermore, 2 rats experienced negative outcomes warrantingeuthanasia: one after receiving ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and the other after ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. In conclusion,isoflurane was the most reliable and effective anesthetic in rice rats and maintained a surgical depth of anesthesia for as longas 30 min, thus supporting successful tooth extractions.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 066027415

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30572978

DOI: 10.30802/aalas-jaalas-18-000032

Related references

Comparison of ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthesia and intraperitoneal tolerance in rats. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 52(4): 481-487, 2014

Comparison of xylazine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in captive Formosan serows (Capricornis swinhoei). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 45(4): 787-791, 2015

Assessment of unassisted recovery from repeated general isoflurane anesthesia in horses following post-anesthetic administration of xylazine or acepromazine or a combination of xylazine and ketamine. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 40(1): 3-12, 2013

A comparison of xylazine-diazepam-ketamine and xylazine-guaifenesin-ketamine in equine anesthesia. Veterinary Surgery 19(6): 468-474, 1990

A comparison of ketamine xylazine and ketamine xylazine butorphanol anesthesia in the rabbit. Laboratory Animal Science 40(5): 556, 1990

A comparison of ketamine/xylazine and ketamine/xylazine/acepromazine anesthesia in the rabbit. Laboratory Animal Science 40(4): 395-398, 1990

Cardiopulmonary effects of diazepam/ketamine/isoflurane or xylazine/ketamine/isoflurane in foals undergoing abdominal surgery. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 30(2): 113, 2003

A Comparison of Oral Midazolam-ketamine, Dexmedetomidine-fentanyl, and Dexmedetomidine-ketamine Combinations as Sedative Agents in Pediatric Dentistry: A Triple-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial. Contemporary Clinical Dentistry 9(Suppl 2): S197-S203, 2018

Comparison of Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine with Isoflurane for Anesthesia of Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 55(3): 312-316, 2017

Cardiopulmonary effects of diazepam-ketamine-isoflurane or xylazine-ketamine-isoflurane during abdominal surgery in foals. American Journal of Veterinary Research 70(5): 574-580, 2009

Evaluation of Ketamine, Ketamine/Xylazine, and Ketamine/Midazolam Anesthesia in Red-Eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25(4): 531-537, 1994

A comparison of ketamine and the combination ketamine-xylazine for effective surgical anesthesia in the rabbit. Laboratory Animal Science 26(5): 804-806, 1976

Comparison of ketamine with the combination of ketamine and xylazine for effective anesthesia in the rhesus monkey macaca mulatta. Laboratory Animal Science 28(6): 742-745, 1978

Evaluation of ketamine, ketamine/xylazine, and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in red-eared sliders. Journal of Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 25(4): 531-537, 1994

Anesthesia in the Richardson's ground squirrel: comparison of ketamine, ketamine and xylazine, droperidol and fentanyl, and sodium pentobarbital. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189(9): 1035-1037, 1986