Section 67
Chapter 66,057

Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Insulin Signaling in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease

Ahmad, M.H.; Fatima, M.; Mondal, A.C.

Neuropsychobiology 77(4): 197-205


ISSN/ISBN: 1423-0224
PMID: 30605907
DOI: 10.1159/000495521
Accession: 066056493

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Alzheimer's disease (AD), the commonest progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, is clinically characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Recent studies suggest a relationship between the endocrinal dysregulation and the neuronal loss during the AD pathology. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis regulating circulating levels of glucocorticoid hormones has been implicated in the pathophysiology of AD. Likewise, dysregulated insulin signaling, impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance are some of the prime factors in the onset/progression of AD. In this review, we have discussed the changes in HPA and HPG axes, implicated insulin resistance/signaling and glucose regulation during the onset/progression of AD. Therefore, simultaneous detection of these endocrinal markers in the early or presymptomatic stages may help in the early diagnosis of AD. This evidence for implicated endocrinal functions supports the fact that modulation of endocrinal pathways can be used as therapeutic targets for AD. Future studies need to determine how the induction or inhibition of endocrinal targets could be used for predictable neuroprotection in AD therapies.

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