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Potential roles for the kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor system in implantation and placentation

Hu, K.-L.; Chang, H.-M.; Zhao, H.-C.; Yu, Y.; Li, R.; Qiao, J.

Human Reproduction Update 25(3): 326-343

2019


ISSN/ISBN: 1460-2369
PMID: 30649364
DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmy046
Accession: 066095027

Initially identified as suppressors of metastasis in various types of cancer, kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides that are key regulators of the mammalian reproductive axis. Accumulating evidence has shown that kisspeptin is able to control both the pulsatile and surge GnRH release, playing fundamental roles in female reproduction, which include the secretion of gonadotropins, puberty onset, brain sex differentiation, ovulation and the metabolic regulation of fertility. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of the kisspeptin system in the processes of implantation and placentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathophysiological role and utility of these local placental regulatory factors as potential biomarkers during the early human gestation. A successful pregnancy, from the initiation of embryo implantation to parturition, is a complex process that requires the orchestration of a series of events. This review aims to concisely summarize what is known about the role of the kisspeptin system in implantation, placentation, early human pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, and to develop strategies for predicting, diagnosing and treating these abnormalities. Using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases, we performed comprehensive literature searches in the English language describing the advancement of kisspeptins and the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) in implantation, placentation and early pregnancy in humans, since its initial identification in 1996 and ending in July 2018. Recent studies have shown the coordinated spatial and temporal expression patterns of kisspeptins and KISS1R during human pregnancy. The experimental data gathered recently suggest putative roles of kisspeptin signaling in the regulation of trophoblast invasion, embryo implantation, placentation and early pregnancy. Dysregulation of the kisspeptin system may negatively affect the processes of implantation as well as placentation. Clinical studies indicate that the circulating levels of kisspeptins or the expression levels of kisspeptin/KISS1R in the placental tissues may be used as potential diagnostic markers for women with miscarriage and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Comprehensive research on the pathophysiological role of the kisspeptin/KISS1R system in implantation and placentation will provide a dynamic and powerful approach to understanding the processes of early pregnancy, with potential applications in observational and analytic screening as well as the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of implantation failure and early pregnancy-related disorders.

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