Vegetable Nitrate Intakes Are Associated with Reduced Self-Reported Cardiovascular-Related Complications within a Representative Sample of Middle-Aged Australian Women, Prospectively Followed up for 15 Years
Jackson, J.K.; Patterson, A.J.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.K.; Forder, P.M.; Blekkenhorst, L.C.; Bondonno, C.P.; Hodgson, J.M.; Ward, N.C.; Holder, C.; Oldmeadow, C.; Byles, J.E.; McEvoy, M.A.
ISSN/ISBN: 2072-6643 PMID: 30678264 DOI: 10.3390/nu11020240
Nitric oxide (NO) facilitates anti-atherosclerotic effects. Vegetables are a major source of dietary nitrate. Experimental data indicates that dietary nitrate can significantly reduce major risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as nitrate can be metabolized to produce NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and the incidence of self-reported CVD-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged Australian women (1946⁻1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Women free from disease at baseline who had completed the food frequency questionnaire data were included. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) across quartiles for nitrate intakes. Of the 5324 women included for analysis, there were 1951 new cases of CVD-related complications over 15-years of follow-up. Women reporting higher total dietary nitrate intakes (Q4 > 78.2 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q4 > 64.4 mg/day) were 25% and 27% reduced risk of developing CVD-related complications respectively, compared with women reporting low total (Q1 < 45.5 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q1 < 34.8 mg/day). Our findings were consistent with other observational data indicating that dietary nitrate may explain some of the cardiovascular benefits of vegetable consumption.