Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in Wheat Curl Mites Recovered from Maturing Winter Wheat Spikes
Byamukama, E.; Tatineni, S.; Hein, G.; McMechan, J.; Wegulo, S.N.
Plant Disease 100(2): 318-323
Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations in leaf samples. Information on incidence of viruses in WCM at the end of the growing season is scant. The availability of this information can enhance our knowledge of the epidemiology of WCM-transmitted viruses. This research was conducted to determine the frequency of occurrence of WSMV, TriMV, and WMoV in WCM populations on field-collected maturing wheat spikes and to determine differences in WCM densities in three geographical regions (southeast, west-central, and panhandle) in Nebraska. Maturing wheat spikes were collected from 83 fields across Nebraska in 2011 and 2012. The spikes were placed in proximity to wheat seedlings (three- to four-leaf stage) in WCM-proof cages in a growth chamber and on sticky tape. WCM that moved off the drying wheat spikes in cages infested the wheat seedlings. WCM that moved off wheat spikes placed on sticky tape were trapped on the tape and were counted under a dissecting microscope. At 28 days after infestation, the wheat plants were tested for the presence of WSMV, TriMV, or WMoV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. WSMV was the most predominant virus detected in wheat seedlings infested with WCM from field-collected spikes. Double (TriMV+WSMV or WMoV+WSMV) or triple (TriMV+ WMoV +WSMV) virus detections were more frequent (47%) than single detections (5%) of TriMV or WSMV. Overall, 81% of the wheat seedlings infested with WCM tested positive for at least one virus. No significant association (P > 0.05) was found between regions for WCM trapped on tape. These results suggest that WCM present on mature wheat spikes harbor multiple wheat viruses and may explain high virus incidence when direct movement of WCM into emerging winter wheat occurs in the fall.