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Conversion of Ancient Castle Villages[邑城村] and Preservation of Folk Villages: In relation to Chinese ancient castle town

Conversion of Ancient Castle Villages[邑城村] and Preservation of Folk Villages: In relation to Chinese ancient castle town

Asian Comparative Folklore 63: 35-69

This research investigated which change village community has experienced today, which operated as the drive of national development as the basis of society. Firstly, this research reviewed the formation process of village community through the structure of internal village community and lifestyle of ancient China, as the result of investigating castle town(邑城) of Joseon based on this, it was determined that the form of village community of premodern period mostly went through the movement process of division(分化) and combination(統合) according to the type of agriculture and location of village community.Korean traditional folk villages are mostly remaining as the form of castle town, the former one(前者) is based on zhouli[周禮] 「kaogongji[考工記]」 with its basic principle. Composition of village is mostly based on blood relationship. Considering castle town(邑城) before Joseon mostly existed in the form of fortress(山城), residents must have concentrated on cultivation or field farming. However, during the late Joseon, location of castle town concentrated on rice farming area of Samnam(三南). This implies that the position of settlement was developed being closely related to period condition, agricultural type, etc.Since modern times, particularly while going through the Japanese colonial era, eubseong was destroyed, and village community greatly changed due to 1970s’ settlement structure improvement or housing improvement business. Since 1970s- 80s, folk village was designated by the government(政府) and restored the original form of village, however in the process not a little conflict is made between the government and residents regarding restoration of the original form of folk village. Village community, which was the drive of social development during the premodern period, fell into the object of preservation of original form. In order for the folk village to survive for a long time as the basis of traditional rural culture as a living entity, the villagers should be proud of their lives and, above all, their life should be natural. A new rural strategy is needed that recognizes agriculture as a ‘life industry’

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