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The Historical Role of Varietal Seed Management Department of the General Directorate of the Sugar Industry in the Development of Breeding and Seed Production of Sugar Beet

The Historical Role of Varietal Seed Management Department of the General Directorate of the Sugar Industry in the Development of Breeding and Seed Production of Sugar Beet

Vestnik of Voronezh State Agrarian University 2016(3): 13-17

The development of sugar beet seed production is inextricably associated with the selection of this crop, i.e. with the general development of sugar beet crop. Within less than one and a half century of selection work sugar beet has evolved from a garden plant into an important technical culture, and its productivity and sugar content have increased by more than 3 times. Polyspermous varieties were replaced by monospermous ones, and people began growing sugar beet created on the basis of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In practice there have appeared diploid, tetraploid forms of the crop and triploid hybrids produced by crossing of those forms. The author shows a great role of Varietal Seed Management Department in the development of selection and seed breeding of sugar beet and lists the major prerequisites for its creation, its structure, personnel and the main directions of work. In 1919 in Kiev the General Directorate of the Sugar Industry was organized, the main task of which was the management of the entire industry of sugar production. In 1922 due to the importance and specificity of this industry it was decided to form a separate Selection and Seed Breeding Department of the Sugar Industry Trust. Its basic functions included breeding of new varieties, seed production and experimenting affairs. The latter was organized by creating experimental departments at the Mironovskaya, Ivanovskaya and Ramonskaya Agricultural Stations. The staff of the Selection and Seed Breeding Department organized congresses for practicing breeders, opened special higher breeding and selection courses, promoted the practical application of scientific methods of breeding and seed production, involved well-known scientists and university professors in the selection and breeding work, led a vigorous publishing activity and contributed to the restoration of agriculture in the USSR after the First World War and the Civil War and to the development of sugar industry and scientific research.

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The Historical Role of Varietal Seed Management Department of the General Directorate of the Sugar Industry in the Development of Breeding and Seed Production of Sugar Beet. Vestnik of Voronezh State Agrarian University 2016(3): 13-17, 2016

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