Abstract In this paper I intend to explore the relationship between the areas of garden (koo) and forest (ka'a), a major opposition in Wajãpi cosmology. The Wajãpi are a Tupi group located in the state of Amapá. In their cosmology the garden and forest do not constitute a fixed opposition, but represent relational positions that move into two directions: a dynamic of territorial occupation by cultivating areas of primary forest, followed by the abandoning of clearings after the harvest; and perspectival relationships that shift the categories of garden and forest, cultivated and non-cultivated, through different subjects. In this context, understanding the dynamics of the relationships between forest and cultivation is critical for a better comprehension of the Wajãpi perspective on agricultural activity. I propose a reflection that establishes a dialogue with historical ecology that points to the existence of anthropic forests. In this way, agriculture is presented as a central activity for the production of biodiversity and areas of anthropic forests.