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Soil test phosphorus and phosphorus fractions with long-term phosphorus addition and depletion



Soil test phosphorus and phosphorus fractions with long-term phosphorus addition and depletion



Soil Science Society of America Journal 68(2): 519-528



The fate of fertilizer P in soil during crop production has to be determined to evaluate the long-term economic value and sustainability of fertilizer practices. We assessed changes in soil test P and soil P fractions with continuous P fertilization and soil P depletion under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in a Ste. Rosalie clay soil (humic Gleysol; fine, mixed, frigid, Typic Humaquept). Soil samples were analyzed for Mehlich-3 P (M-3 P) and P fractions using a modified Hedley's procedure. Soil M-3 P values remained constant in spite of crop removal in soil not receiving fertilizer for 10 yr. Continuous P fertilization at rates from 44 to 132 P ha(-1) yr(-1) increased linearly soil M-3 P, with 6.3 kg P ha(-1) of net P addition required to increase M-3 P by 1 mg P kg(-1). Residual fertilizer P in soil resulted from the continuous P addition were found predominately in labile inorganic P (LPi) (NaHCO3-P-i) and moderately labile P-i (MLPi) (NaOH-P-i). Increased P rates favored soil P transformation from LPi to MLPi, indicating enhanced soil P retention. With P depletion, soil M-3 P declined in plots previously receiving 132 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1), with 4.2 kg P ha(-1) crop P removal decreasing soil M-3 P by 1 mg P kg(-1). Continuous crop removal of soil residual P (Res-P) resulted in decreases in soil LPi and increases in MLPi, an indication of increased retention of Res-P with time. However, moderately stable P-i (HCl-P-i) remained constant, both with continuous P addition and P depletion. Conversion of residual fertilizer P to less available P forms in soil was a slow process and thus the fate of the Res-P should be taken into consideration when developing soil nutrient management plans.

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Accession: 066184003

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DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2004.5190


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