Nutrient Uptake, Soil and Plant Nutrient Contents, and Yield Components of Wheat Plants under different Planting Systems and Various Irrigation Frequencies

Pahlavan-Rad, M. R.; Movahedi-Naeini, S. A. R.; Pessarakli, M.

Journal of Plant Nutrition 34(8): 1133-1143

2011


ISSN/ISBN: 0190-4167
DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2011.558157
Accession: 066244796

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Abstract
The effects of seed bed shaping on nutrient variation in soil and plant under two different irrigation intervals were investigated on wheat (Triticum asetivum L.) plants with a split plot design in a field plot in Zahak Agricultural Research Station in Sistan province in 2005. Irrigations after 80 and 160 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan were used as main plots. Flat surface irrigation, single, triple, and 6-row beds with four replications were subplots. Total soil nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na) were measured in a 30 cm depth top layer at five sampling times. Shoot samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Results showed that the 3-row and the 6-row beds with more frequent irrigation (shorter irrigation interval) increased soil solution sodium content in beds resulting in increased plant sodium absorption. With the 3-row and the 6-row beds, increased solution sodium concentration in soil increased solution ionic strength, dissolution of lime and hence soluble Ca and Mg. With the more frequent irrigation (shorter irrigation interval), only grain nitrogen and sodium contents were increased with no change in the absorption of other nutrients. The shoot N, P, and K uptake with more frequent irrigation (shorter irrigation interval) was greater, however the grain P and K uptakes were similar with the less frequent irrigation (longer irrigation interval), suggesting a lack of transfer from other tissues to grain. The transfer of nitrogen and all other major elements from other tissues to grain was greatest with single row bed with both irrigation intervals, suggesting grain yield might not have been affected by a greater N, P and K fertilizer application. A key to grain yield increase with a more frequent irrigation (shorter irrigation interval) might be using a limiting micronutrient, effective in major nutrients transfer to grain from the other plant tissues or a bed shaping method enhancing its uptake.