Genetic Divergence in Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Landraces Based on Qualitative and Quantitative Traits

Akbar, F.; Rabbani, M. A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Khan, S.J.

Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(6): 2737-2744

2011


ISSN/ISBN: 0556-3321
Accession: 066257103

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Abstract
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world's oldest oil crops and has been cultivated in Asia since ancient times. The breeding potential of the germplasm accessions held in PGRP gene-bank has hardly been exploited to date. This study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic variability in the local sesame genotypes using 16 qualitative and quantitative traits. A total of 105 sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of Pakistan were used. A considerable level of variation was recorded for a number of morphologic and agronomic traits, while limited diversity for observed among the accessions for characters like stem hairiness, flower color (white with purple shading), seed color and to some extent phyllody disease. The correlation coefficient analysis indicated that plant height, capsules plant(-1), capsule length and 1000-seed weight had the significant positive effect on seed yield. The characters related to maturity, days to flower initiation and days to 50% flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to establish similarity and dissimilarity patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first three PC axes explained 54.21% of the total multivariate variation, while the first four PC axes explaining 63.64%. Plant height, days to maturity, capsules plant(-1) and seed yield plant(-1) were the major determinants of the genetic diversity in the collection. Cluster analysis places all the accessions into seven groups. Clustering was not associated with the geographical distribution instead accessions were mainly grouped due to their morphological differences. Elite sesame germplasm has been selected on the basis of best agro-morphological performance from 105 sesame collections. These results have an important suggestion for sesame germplasm agro-morphological assessment, enhancement, categorization and conservation in Pakistan.