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Seed production of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in response to time of emergence in cotton and rice

Seed production of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in response to time of emergence in cotton and rice

Journal of Agricultural Science 150: 717-724

ISSN/ISBN: 0021-8596

DOI: 10.1017/s0021859611000876

The spread of herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) poses a serious threat to crop production in the southern United States. A thorough knowledge of the biology of barnyardgrass is fundamental for designing effective resistance-management programmes. In the present study, seed production of barnyardgrass in response to time of emergence was investigated in cotton and rice, respectively, in Fayetteville and Rohwer, Arkansas, over a 2-year period (2008-09). Barnyardgrass seed production was greater when seedlings emerged with the crop, but some seed production was observed even if seedlings emerged several weeks after crop emergence. Moreover, barnyardgrass seed production was highly variable across environments. When emerging with the crop (0 weeks after crop emergence (WAE)), barnyardgrass produced c. 35500 and 16500 seeds/plant in cotton, and c. 39000 and 2900 seeds/plant in rice, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Seed production was observed when seedlings emerged up to 5 WAE (2008) or 7 WAE (2009) in cotton and up to 5 WAE (2008, 2009) in rice; corresponding seed production was c. 2500 and 1500 seeds/plant in cotton, and c. 14700 and 110 seeds/plant in rice, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results suggest that cultural approaches that delay the emergence of barnyardgrass or approaches that make the associated crop more competitive will be useful in integrated management programmes. In the context of herbicide resistance management, it may be valuable to prevent seed return to the seedbank, irrespective of cohorts. The findings are vital for parameterizing herbicide resistance simulation models for barnyardgrass.

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Accession: 066266737

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