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Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against seed borne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against seed borne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Journal of Environmental Biology 37(6): 1429-1436

Rice (Oryzae sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and major food crops of the world. However, despite the use to which it is put, its production is affected by the attack of fungal pathogens. Some of these fungal pathogens move into the field through seeds, ie., they are seed-borne. In the present study, it was observed that Fusarium moniliforme and Helminthosporium oryzae? were present in the seeds of rice, variety ADT 45 and White Ponni. The per cent discolouration varied from 16 to 19. The highest percentage of discolouration (19 %) was found in rice variety ADT 45, followed by White ponni (16%). A total of two fungal genera were found to be associated with seeds of two different varieties of rice. Among them, the most predominant one was H. oryzae, followed by F. moniliforme. Six essential oils were tested against two rice seed borne pathogens. The results revealed that three essential oils viz., Cymbopogan citratus, Cymbopogan martini and Pelargonium graveolens were found to be more effective and inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen with least concentration of 0.1% MIC, while other oils such Cymbopogan nardus Eucalyptus globulus and Ocimum sanctum were not effective against the pathogens at these concentration. Three essential oils also increased the germination capacity of treated seeds with 85.6% against control (63.0%).

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