Section 67
Chapter 66,384

Mapping daily leaf area index at 30 m resolution over a meadow steppe area by fusing Landsat, Sentinel-2A and MODIS data

Li, Z.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Gao, F.; Tang, H.; Xin, X.; Ding, L.; Shen, B.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.; Wang, X.; Yan, R.

International Journal of Remote Sensing 39(23): 9025-9053


ISSN/ISBN: 0143-1161
DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2018.1504342
Accession: 066383702

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The leaf area index (LAI) is a key vegetation canopy structure parameter and is closely associated with vegetation photosynthesis, transpiration, and energy balance. Developing a landscape-scale LAI dataset with a high temporal resolution (daily) is essential for capturing rapidly changing vegetation structure at field scales and supporting regional biophysical modeling efforts. In this study, two daily 30 m LAI time series from 2014 to 2016 over a meadow steppe site in northern China were generated using a spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) combined with an LAI retrieval radiative transfer model (PROSAIL). Gap-filled Landsat 7, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2A surface reflectance (SR) images were used to generate fine-resolution LAI maps with the PROSAIL look-up table method. Two daily 500 m moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI product-the existing MCD15A3H LAI product and one was generated from the MCD43A4 SR product and the PROSAIL model, were used to provide temporally continuous LAI variations. The STARFM model was then used to fuse the fine-resolution LAI maps with the two 500 m LAI products separately to generate two daily 30 m LAI time series. Both results were assessed for three types of pasture (mowed pasture, grazing pasture, and fenced pasture) using ground measurements from 2014-2015. The results showed that the PROSAIL-generated LAI maps all exhibited a high accuracy, and the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for the Landsat 7 LAI and Landsat 8 LAI compared to the ground-measured LAI were 0.33 and 0.28 respectively. The Landsat LAI maps also showed good agreement and similar spatial patterns with the Sentinel-2A LAI with mean differences between +/- 0.5. The MCD43A4_PROSPECT LAI product exhibited similar seasonal variability to the ground measurements and to the Landsat and Sentinel-2A LAIs, and these data are also smoother and contain fewer noisy points than the gap-filled MCD15A3H LAI product. Compared to the ground measurements, the daily 30 m LAI time series fused from the fine-resolution LAI maps and PROSPECT generated MODIS LAI product demonstrated better performance with an RMSE of 0.44 and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.34, which is an improvement from the LAI time series fused from the fine-resolution LAI maps and the existing MCD15A3H LAI product (RMSE of 0.56 and MAE of 0.42). The latter dataset also exhibited abnormal temporal fluctuations, which may have been caused by the interpolation method. The results also demonstrated the very good performance of the STARFM model in grazing and mowed pasture with homogeneous surfaces compared to fenced pasture with smaller patch sizes. The Sentinel-2A data offers increased landscape vegetation observation frequency and provides temporal information about canopy changes that occur between Landsat overpass dates. The scheme developed in this study can be used as a reference for regional vegetation dynamic studies and can be applied to larger areas to improve grassland modeling efforts.

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