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Novel genetic and epigenetic factors of importance for inter-individual differences in drug disposition, response and toxicity

Novel genetic and epigenetic factors of importance for inter-individual differences in drug disposition, response and toxicity

Pharmacology and Therapeutics 197: 122-152

Individuals differ substantially in their response to pharmacological treatment. Personalized medicine aspires to embrace these inter-individual differences and customize therapy by taking a wealth of patient-specific data into account. Pharmacogenomic constitutes a cornerstone of personalized medicine that provides therapeutic guidance based on the genomic profile of a given patient. Pharmacogenomics already has applications in the clinics, particularly in oncology, whereas future development in this area is needed in order to establish pharmacogenomic biomarkers as useful clinical tools. In this review we present an updated overview of current and emerging pharmacogenomic biomarkers in different therapeutic areas and critically discuss their potential to transform clinical care. Furthermore, we discuss opportunities of technological, methodological and institutional advances to improve biomarker discovery. We also summarize recent progress in our understanding of epigenetic effects on drug disposition and response, including a discussion of the only few pharmacogenomic biomarkers implemented into routine care. We anticipate, in part due to exciting rapid developments in Next Generation Sequencing technologies, machine learning methods and national biobanks, that the field will make great advances in the upcoming years towards unlocking the full potential of genomic data.

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Accession: 066444587

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PMID: 30677473

DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.01.002

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