+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

First Report of Penicillium crustosum Causing Blue Mold on Stored Apple Fruit in Serbia



First Report of Penicillium crustosum Causing Blue Mold on Stored Apple Fruit in Serbia



Plant Disease 98(10): 1430



Penicillium crustosum Thom (1930) causes blue mold on pome fruits and is also regularly found on cheese, nuts, and soil (1,3). The fungus produces a wide range of mycotoxins such as penitrem A, roquefortine C, terrestric acid, and cyclopenol, which impact human health (1). In January and February 2013, 20 decayed apples, 'Golden Delicious' and 'Jonagold' (Malus × domestica Borkh.) with blue mold symptoms were collected from cold storages in Svilajnac and Bela Crkva, Serbia. Decayed areas were light to medium brown with blue green sporulation on the surface of the lesion. Decayed tissue was soft and watery with a sharp margin between the diseased and healthy areas. One isolate from each cultivar was designated JP2 ('Golden Delicious') and JBC7 ('Jonagold') and further characterized. Conidiophores of both isolates were terverticillate, stipes were septate with rough walls, and phialides were ampulliform. Conidia were smooth, borne in columns, and were spherical to subglobose. Conidial dimensions for JP2 were 3.2 to 4.56 (3.73) × 2.64 to 4.3 (3.32) μm and for JBC7 were 3.1 to 4.46 (3.65) × 2.81 to 4.27 (3.31) μm (n = 50). The isolates were cultured on Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA), malt extract agar (MEA), and yeast extract sucrose agar (YES) media and incubated at 25°C for 7 days. Mycelia were white with heavy sporulation yielding grayish green colonies on all media. Colonies were radially sulcate and velutinous, with clear exudate, and produced a yellow to orange reverse on CYA and YES. On MEA, colonies were plane, low, and mycelia subsurface with conidia having a dry powdery appearance. Crusts of conidial masses formed after 10 or more days. No growth was observed on CYA when these isolates were incubated at 37°C. Both isolates were identified as P. crustosum Thom using morphological characters according to (2) and (1). Species level identification was confirmed by isolating genomic DNA followed by amplification of the β-tubulin locus using gene specific primers via conventional PCR (4). MegaBLAST analysis of the 2X consensus nucleotide sequences revealed that JP2 and JBC7 (GenBank KJ433984 and 85) were 99% identical to P. crustosum culture collection isolate IBT 21518 (JN112030.1). Koch's postulates were examined using two apple cvs. Idared and Kolacara. Ten fruit per cultivar per isolate were inoculated on two sides of each fruit; 20 fruit were used as water-only inoculated controls. Fruit were washed with soap and water, surface sanitized with 70% ethanol, and placed into polyethylene boxes. Using a finishing nail, 4-mm wounds were created and inoculated with 50 μl of a 3 × 105/ml conidial suspension or Tween-treated sterile distilled water. Boxes with inoculated and control fruit were stored at 25°C for 10 days. The inoculated fruit developed small, soft, watery lesions, which enlarged into decayed areas with defined edges and abundant sporulation on the surface. Symptoms were identical to the original ones, while the control fruit remained symptomless. The fungus was re-isolated from infected tissue and showed the same morphological characteristics as the original isolates, thus completing Koch's postulates. Blue mold occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by P. expansum. This is the first report of P. crustosum causing postharvest blue mold decay on apple fruit obtained from storage in Serbia and indicates that P. crustosum is an emerging pathogen for the Serbian pome fruit growing and packing industry. References: (1) J. C. Frisvad and R. A. Samson. Stud. Mycol. 49:1, 2004. (2) J. I. Pitt and A. D. Hocking. Fungi and Food Spoilage, 239. Springer, 2009. (3) P. G. Sanderson and R. A. Spotts. Phytopathology 85:103. 1995. (4) P. L. Sholberg et al. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 36:41, 2005.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 066446105

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30703973


Related references

First Report of Penicillium polonicum Causing Blue Mold on Stored Onion (Allium cepa) in Serbia. Plant Disease 98(10): 1440, 2014

First Report of Penicillium carneum Causing Blue Mold on Stored Apples in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease 96(12): 1823, 2012

First Report of Penicillium griseofulvum Causing Blue Mold on Stored Apples in Italy (Piedmont). Plant Disease 95(1): 76, 2011

Fungicide evaluation for control of Penicillium blue mold of apple during cold storage, 1980-81 Apple (Malus sylvestris McIntosh, Golden Delicious), blue mold; Penicillium expansum. Fungicide and nematicide tests results American Phytopathological Society7(37): 15, 1982

First Report of Penicillium expansum Causing Postharvest Blue Mold of Fresh Date Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) in Spain. Plant Disease 97(6): 846, 2013

Spore germination mycelial growth and pathogenicity of benomyl resistant penicillium expansum causing apple blue mold rot. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology 5(4): 344-348, 1989

Postharvest control of benzimidazole-resistant blue mold in apples, 1981 Apple (Malus sylvestris Delicious, Northern Spy), blue mold rot; Penicillium expansum. Fungicide and nematicide tests results American Phytopathological Society7(37): 1, 1982

Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to postharvest blue mold in fruit caused by Penicillium expansum. Hortscience: 2, 420-426, 2008

Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to postharvest blue mold in fruit caused by Penicillium expansum. Hortscience: 2, 420-426, 2008

First Report of Botryosphaeria dothidea Causing White Rot of Apple Fruit in Serbia. Plant Disease 97(12): 1659-1659, 2013

First morphomolecular identification of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum toxicogenic isolates associated with blue mold on apple. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 7(7): 857-861, 2010

First Report of Penicillium Ulaiense Causing Whisker Mould on Stored CITRUS FRUIT IN TUNISIA. Journal of Plant Pathology 97(2): 402-402, 2015

First Report of Penicillium expansum Isolates Resistant to Pyrimethanil from Stored Apple Fruit in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease 98(7): 1004, 2014

Characterization of blue mold caused by Penicillium spp. in cold stored table grapes. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria 33(2): 143-155, 2006

Characterization of Penicillium Isolates Associated with Blue Mold on Apple in Uruguay. Plant Disease 88(1): 23-28, 2004