+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Eukaryotic 5-methylcytosine (m⁵C) RNA Methyltransferases: Mechanisms, Cellular Functions, and Links to Disease



Eukaryotic 5-methylcytosine (m⁵C) RNA Methyltransferases: Mechanisms, Cellular Functions, and Links to Disease



Genes 10(2)



5-methylcytosine (m⁵C) is an abundant RNA modification that's presence is reported in a wide variety of RNA species, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and a number of non-coding RNAs. In eukaryotes, C5 methylation of RNA cytosines is catalyzed by enzymes of the NOL1/NOP2/SUN domain (NSUN) family, as well as the DNA methyltransferase homologue DNMT2. In recent years, substrate RNAs and modification target nucleotides for each of these methyltransferases have been identified, and structural and biochemical analyses have provided the first insights into how each of these enzymes achieves target specificity. Functional characterizations of these proteins and the modifications they install have revealed important roles in diverse aspects of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. Importantly, this knowledge has enabled a better understanding of the molecular basis of a number of diseases caused by mutations in the genes encoding m⁵C methyltransferases or changes in the expression level of these enzymes.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 066446241

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30704115

DOI: 10.3390/genes10020102


Related references

Eukaryotic rRNA Modification by Yeast 5-Methylcytosine-Methyltransferases and Human Proliferation-Associated Antigen p120. Plos One 10(7): E0133321, 2016

Conformation space and the emergence of new functions for eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 6(Supplement 1): S11, 2000

Gilberts conjecture The search for DNA demethylases and the emergence of new functions for eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases. Journal of Molecular Biology 302(1): 1-7, 8 September, 2000

Mechanisms and functions of Tet protein-mediated 5-methylcytosine oxidation. Genes and Development 25(23): 2436-2452, 2012

Gilbert's conjecture: the search for DNA (cytosine-5) demethylases and the emergence of new functions for eukaryotic DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases. Journal of Molecular Biology 302(1): 1-7, 2000

DNA 5-methylcytosine demethylation activities of the mammalian DNA methyltransferases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 288(13): 9084-9091, 2013

Biosynthesis and distribution of methylcytosine in wheat dna how different are plant dna methyltransferases. Clawson, G A , Et Al (Ed ) Ucla (University Of California-Los Angeles) Symposia on Molecular And Cellular Biology New Series, Vol 128 Nucleic Acid Methylation; Colloquium, Frisco, Colorado, Usa, March 31-April 7, 1989 Xx+425p Wiley-Liss: New York, New York, Usa; Chichester, England, Uk Illus 199-210, 1990

RNA methyltransferases utilize two cysteine residues in the formation of 5-methylcytosine. Biochemistry 41(37): 11218-11225, September 17, 2002

Rethinking the evolution of eukaryotic metabolism: novel cellular partitioning of enzymes in stramenopiles links serine biosynthesis to glycolysis in mitochondria. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 17(1): 241, 2018

Relative efficiencies of the bacterial, yeast, and human DNA methyltransferases for the repair of O6-methylguanine and O4-methylthymine. Suggestive evidence for O4-methylthymine repair by eukaryotic methyltransferases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266(5): 2767-2771, 1991

5-Methylcytosine in eukaryotic DNA. Science 212(4501): 1350-1357, 1981

Cellular functions of FAK kinases: insight into molecular mechanisms and novel functions. Journal of Cell Science 123(Pt 7): 1007-1013, 2010

The eukaryotic N-end rule pathway: conserved mechanisms and diverse functions. Trends in Cell Biology 24(10): 603-611, 2015

Diverse eukaryotic transcripts suggest short tandem repeats have cellular functions. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 298(4): 581-586, November 8, 2002

Studies on cellular functions of a eukaryotic helix destabilizing protein using specific antibodies. European Journal of Cell Biology 22(1): 92, 1980