Effect of the UV-filter benzophenone-3 on intra-colonial social behaviors of the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris)
Chen, T.-H.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Ko, F.-C.; Cheng, J.-O.
Science of the Total Environment 644: 1625-1629
The UV-filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is widely used and is environmentally stable, lipophilic, and bioaccumulative. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that BP-3 can cause endocrine disrupting effects. However, little information is available on its ecotoxicity on coral reef fish. Agonistic behavior, which is regulated by the endocrine system, is crucial to the social structure of some coral reef fish species. Endocrine disruptors may disturb fish agonistic behavior and social interactions. In this study, we tested whether chronic BP-3 exposure can affect social behaviors in coral reef fish. Juvenile false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris) were exposed to BP-3 via diet (0 and 1000 ng/g food) for 90 d. Through the experiment, each tank was videotaped and behavioral indicators of social status, including threatening, attacking, and submissive behaviors were quantitatively analyzed from the videos. Survival and growth were not affected by the BP-3 exposure except that the body weight of the dominant fish was higher in the BP-3 group. Social rankings were not changed by BP-3. Intra-colonial social behaviors were significantly affected only by rank but not by the BP-3 exposure. Our results suggest that BP-3 at environmental levels may not cause significant harm to social behavior of coral reef fish. However, more research is needed to better understand the behavioral effects of BP-3 in fish.