Section 67
Chapter 66,501

First Report of Anther Smut Caused by Microbotryum violaceum on Forked Catchfly (Silene dichotoma) in Turkey

Berner, D.; Tunali, B.

Plant Disease 92(2): 315


ISSN/ISBN: 0191-2917
PMID: 30769414
Accession: 066500113

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Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.), family Caryophyllaceae, is a common and native plant in rangelands and pastures in Turkey. It is also an introduced plant that is widely distributed in North America. In May of 2007, approximately 20 forked catchfly plants on the campus of Ondokuz Mayis University in Samsun, Turkey were found diseased with the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum (Pers.:pers.) G. Deml & Oberw. (Basidiomycota, Microbotryomycetes, Microbotryales [3], Microbotryaceae). All anthers in all flowers of diseased plants were smutted. Diseased flowers were collected, air dried, and sent to the quarantine facility of the Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit (FDWSRU), USDA/ARS, Fort Detrick, MD. Teliospores within the flowers were extracted and observed microscopically. Teliospores were globose, 6 to 9 μm (mean 6.5 μm) in diameter, pale violet, with reticulate walls, and matching the description of M. violaceum (4). Nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 2) and 5.8S ribosomal region (GenBank Accession No. EU122308) were aligned with other sequences in GenBank with the BLAST algorithm. Sequences of this isolate aligned 99% with sequences of other isolates of M. violaceum, M. lychnidis-dioicae (A.P. de Candolle ex J.I. Liro) G. Deml & F. Oberwinkler, and M. silenes-inflatae (A.P. de Candolle ex J.I. Liro) G. Deml & F. Oberwinkler and clustered with other M. violaceum isolates. M. violaceum is an obligate parasite of many plant species in the Caryophyllaceae family, and the fungus has been widely studied as a model for population genetics and evolutionary biology (2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. violaceum parasitizing forked catchfly in Turkey, and is the only report of this fungus-plant interaction in Asia Minor (1). The fungus has not been reported from this plant in North America (1). A voucher specimen has been deposited with the U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI 878235) and living spores are being maintained at FDWSRU. References: (1) D. F. Farr et al. Fungal Databases. Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory. Online publication. ARS, USDA, 2007. (2) T. Giraud. Heredity 93:559, 2004. (3) D. S. Hibbett et al. Mycol. Res. 111:509, 2007. (4) K. Vánky. European Smut Fungi. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 1994.

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