First Report of Asian Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi on Kudzu in South Africa
Pretorius, Z.A.; Visser, B.; du Preez, P.J.
Plant Disease 91(10): 1364
ISSN/ISBN: 0191-2917 PMID: 30780533 Accession: 066509947
Asian soybean rust was first reported on soybean in South Africa (SA) in 2001 (3). The disease has occurred in all ensuing seasons, particularly in the humid, eastern production regions, causing significant losses in soybean fields not protected by fungicides. In April 2005, rust-infected Pueraria lobata (kudzu) was detected near Nelspruit, Mpumalanga, SA. At this location (25°20'41″S, 30°43'30″E), kudzu plants occurred abundantly on road sides, edges of pine plantations, and in natural vegetation. Most vines were infected, with abaxial surfaces of older leaves often showing 100% severity. Following inoculation with rust spores collected from kudzu, soybean line PI200492 (Rpp1) produced tan lesions typical of a susceptible reaction for Asian soybean rust. PI230970 (Rpp2), PI462312 (Rpp3), and PI459025 (Rpp4) showed red-brown lesions typical of a resistant reaction. Using Ppm1/Ppa2 and Ppm1/Ppm2 primer combinations, the amplification profiles of the internal transcribed spacer region (1) of rust DNA extracted from primary leaves of line PI200492 infected with spores collected from kudzu positively identified the pathogen as Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The Ppm1/Pme2 primer combination specific for P. meibomiae (1) did not yield an amplification product. The Qualiplate ELISA test kit (EnviroLogix Inc., Portland, ME) verified the identification of P. pachyrhizi on an original kudzu sample as well as the leaf material used for DNA analysis. A survey of kudzu at the Nelspruit site during July 2005 confirmed the presence of the pathogen during the offseason for soybean. At that time, incidence of kudzu rust remained high, but few leaves showed high severity. The susceptibility of kudzu to Asian soybean rust has been reported in controlled infection studies in SA (2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. pachyrhizi causing rust on a large, naturally occurring kudzu population in SA. References: (1) R. D. Frederick et al. Phytopathology 92:217, 2002. (2) A. Nunkumar. M.Sc. thesis. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2006. (3) Z. A. Pretorius et al. Plant Dis. 85:1288, 2001.