First Report of Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi on Dry Beans in South Africa
du Preez, E.D.; van Rij, N.C.; Lawrance, K.F.; Miles, M.R.; Frederick, R.D.
Plant Disease 89(2): 206
ISSN/ISBN: 0191-2917 PMID: 30795236 Accession: 066522765
During April 2004, a 150-m2 dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plot growing adjacent to rust-infected soybean (Glycine max) at Cedara Agricultural Research Farm (29°32'S 30°16'E) was observed to be infected with two distinct rust types. Common bean rust (caused by Uromyces appendiculatus) with reddish brown uredinia and black telia was readily identified. A second rust with smaller sporulating uredinia (1.0 to 1.5 mm2), which were gray in appearance, was also found. Visual rust severity on the dry bean plants, which were in mid pod-fill, was high (approximately 30 to 40% disease incidence). Twenty plants were examined and observed to be infected with both rusts. With microscopic examination of no fewer than 20 leaves per plant, the urediniospores from the smaller lesions were determined to be morphologically similar to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (3). Real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assays on six leaves and sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (1) verified the identity of the urediniospores as P. pachyrhizi. Although P. vulgaris is a known host of P. pachyrhizi, to our knowledge this is the first time since the arrival of soybean rust in 2001 that P. pachyrhizi has been observed on an alternate host plant in South Africa (2). Since dry beans are grown all year in frost-free areas, the implications are that dry beans may serve as an important overwintering host and source of inoculum for seasonal soybean rust outbreaks. References: (1) R. D. Frederick et al. Phytopathology 92:217, 2002. (2) Z. A. Pretorius et al. Plant Dis. 85:1288, 2001. (3) J. B. Sinclair and G. L. Hartman. Soybean Rust. Pages 25-26 in: Compendium of Soybean Diseases, 4th ed. G. L. Hartman et al. eds. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, 1999.