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In Vitro Assessment of Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extracts on Plasmodium falciparum Strain NF54



In Vitro Assessment of Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extracts on Plasmodium falciparum Strain NF54



Malaria Research and Treatment 2019: 6976298



Malaria is one of the most important life-threatening infectious diseases in the tropics. In spite of the effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy, reports on reduced sensitivity of the parasite to artemisinin in Cambodia and Thailand warrants screening for new potential antimalarial drugs for future use. Ghanaian herbalists claim that Polyalthia longifolia has antimalarial activity. Therefore, antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxic effects, and antioxidant and phytochemical properties of P. longifolia leaf extract were investigated in this study. Aqueous, 70% hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate leaf extracts were prepared using standard procedures. Antiplasmodial activity was assessed in vitro by using chloroquine-sensitive malaria parasite strain NF54. The SYBR® Green and tetrazolium-based calorimetric assays were used to measure parasite growth inhibition and cytotoxicity, respectively, after extract treatment. Total antioxidant activity was evaluated using a free radical scavenging assay. Results obtained showed that extracts protected red blood cells against Plasmodium falciparum mediated damage. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 24.0±1.08 μg/ml, 22.5±0.12 μg/ml, and 9.5±0.69 μg/ml for aqueous, hydroethanolic, and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Flavonoids, tannins, and saponins were present in the hydroethanolic extract, whereas only the latter was observed in the aqueous extract. Aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities compared to the ethyl acetate extract. The extracts of P. longifolia have antiplasmodial properties and low toxicities to human red blood cells. The extracts could be developed as useful alternatives to antimalarial drugs. These results support claims of the herbalists that decoctions of P. longifolia are useful antimalarial agents.

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Accession: 066531479

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30805129

DOI: 10.1155/2019/6976298


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