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Naturally occurring rare sugars are free radical scavengers and can ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum stress

Naturally occurring rare sugars are free radical scavengers and can ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum stress

International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition 2019: 1-11

Because of potential use of naturally occurring rare sugars as sweeteners, their effect on superoxide (SO), hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was examined in human coronary artery endothelial cells. SO generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence. Phycoerythrin fluorescence based assay was used to monitor scavenging activity of sugars in the presence of hydroxyl or peroxyl radical generators [CuSO4 and azobis (2 amidinopropane) hydrochloride respectively]. Measurements were made in relative light units (RLU). ER stress was measured with an ER stress-sensitive secreted alkaline phosphatase (SAP) assay and by Western blot analysis of the expression and phosphorylation of key proteins in the unfolded protein response, namely CHOP47, eIF2α and JNK1. D-Glucose (27.5 mM) increased SO generation (5536 ± 283 vs. 2963 ± 205 RLU in controls; p < 0.0007) and decreased SAP secretion (73411 ± 3971 vs. 101749 ± 7652 RLU in controls; p < 0.005) indicating ER stress. Treatment of cells with 5.5 or 27.5 mM of D-allulose, D-allose, D-sorbose and D-tagatose reduced SO generation (all p < 0.05). This could not be attributed to inhibition of cellular uptake of dextrose by the rare sugars tested. In a cell free system, all four rare sugars had significantly more SO, hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity compared to dextrose (all p < 0.01). Treatment of cells with rare sugars reduced ER stress. However, unlike other three rare sugars, D-sorbose did not inhibit tunicamycin-induced eIF2α phosphorylation. Naturally occurring rare sugars are free radical scavengers and can reduce ER stress.

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Accession: 066532829

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PMID: 30806585

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