Continuous exposure of isoprenaline inhibits myoblast differentiation and fusion through PKA/ERK1/2-FOXO1 signaling pathway
Chen, S.-J.; Yue, J.; Zhang, J.-X.; Jiang, M.; Hu, T.-Q.; Leng, W.-D.; Xiang, L.; Li, X.-Y.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, F.; Yuan, Y.; Guo, L.-Y.; Pan, Y.-M.; Yan, Y.-W.; Wang, J.-N.; Chen, S.-Y.; Tang, J.-M.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy 10(1): 70
The objective of this study is to determine if exuberant sympathetic nerve activity is involved in muscle satellite cell differentiation and myoblast fusion. By using immunoassaying and western blot analyses, we found that β1 and β2-adrenergic receptors (AdR) were expressed in C2C12 cells. The differentiated satellite cells exhibited an increased expression of β2-AdR, as compared with the proliferating cells. Continuous exposure of isoprenaline (ISO), a β-AdR agonist, delayed C2C12 cell differentiation, and myoblast fusion in time- and dose-dependent manner. ISO also increased short myotube numbers while decreasing long myotube numbers, consistent with the greater reduction in MyHC1, MyHC2a, and MyHC2x expression. Moreover, continuous exposure of ISO gradually decreased the ratio of PKA RI/RII, and PKA RI activator efficiently reversed the ISO effect on C2C12 cell differentiation and myoblast fusion while PKA inhibitor H-89 deteriorated the effects. Continuous single-dose ISO increased β1-AdR expression in C2C12 cells. More importantly, the cells showed enhanced phospho-ERK1/2 levels, resulting in increasing phospho-β2-AdR levels while decreasing β2-AdR levels, and the specific effects could be abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor. Furthermore, continuous exposure of ISO induced FOXO1 nuclear translocation and increased the levels of FOXO1 in nuclear extracts while reducing pAKT, p-p38MAPK, and pFOXO1 levels. Conversely, blockade of ERK1/2 signaling partially abrogated ISO effects on AKT, p38MAPK, and FOXO1signaling, which partially restored C2C12 cell differentiation and myoblast fusion, leading to an increase in the numbers of medium myotube along with the increased expression of MyHC1 and MyHC2a. Continuous exposure of ISO impedes satellite cell differentiation and myoblast fusion, at least in part, through PKA-ERK1/2-FOXO1 signaling pathways, which were associated with the reduced β2-AdR and increased β1-AdR levels.