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Risk factors and outcomes associated with the isolation of polymyxin B and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp.: A case-control study



Risk factors and outcomes associated with the isolation of polymyxin B and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp.: A case-control study



International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2019



Increasing resistance to polymyxin, a last-line antibiotic, is a growing public health concern worldwide. The primary objective of this study was to identify predictors for the isolation of polymyxin-resistant (PR) carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among hospitalised patients. The secondary objective was to describe the clinical outcomes of patients with PR-CRE infections. A retrospective case-control study including patients admitted to Singapore General Hospital between June 2012 and June 2016 was conducted. Cases were defined as patients who had clinical cultures from which a PR-CRE was isolated. Controls were randomly selected from patients with polymyxin-susceptible (PS) CRE admitted during the same period, and frequency-matched to site of isolation. We included 37 PR cases and 111 PS controls. Polymyxin resistance was detected predominantly in Enterobacter spp. (54.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (43.2%). Multilocus sequence typing showed little clonal relatedness among the isolates. mcr-1 was detected in two PR-CRE isolates. Multivariable analyses showed that PR-CRE isolation was associated with prior polymyxins [Adjusted odds ratio (OR), 21.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.04 - 150.96] and carbapenem exposures (OR 3.74; CI 1.13 - 12.44), when adjusted for time at risk and bacteria species. In PR-CRE patients with infections, the 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality was 50.0% as compared to 38.1% in patients with PS-CRE (p = 0.346). Prior polymyxin and carbapenem exposures were independent risk factors for isolation of PR-CRE. Outcomes of PR-CRE and PS-CRE infections were similar in this study.

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Accession: 066597603

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PMID: 30880229

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.03.011


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