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Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Anambra State, Nigeria

Mapping of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Anambra State, Nigeria

Annals of Global Health 85(1)

ISSN/ISBN: 2214-9996

PMID: 30951269

Mapping the distribution of parasitic diseases in time and space has a pivotal role to play in their control. This study mapped urinary schistosomiasis in Anambra State. Sampling covered the three senatorial districts, Anambra North, Anambra Central and Anambra South. However, only nine of the 21 local government areas (LGAs) and one town in each LGA were covered. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the distribution of schistosomiasis in the state. With the aid of GIS, the distance of the towns to water bodies was calculated. A total of 450 urine samples collected from the nine LGAs were examined for haematuria and Schistosoma haematobium eggs. A questionnaire was used to assess exposure and risks status to infection. The urine samples were examined for haematuria using dipstick and microscopy. Overall prevalence of infection in the study was 2.9% and 5.5% for microscopy and haematuria, respectively. Prevalence of schistosomiasis was different between the districts, and this was statistically significant (χ² = 7.763, p = 0.021). Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the towns had a significant negative linear relationship with distance to water body (r = -0.767, p = 0.016). Based on infection status from microscopy, the adjusted odds of infection in fishers was over 103 times higher than in students; the difference was significant statistically (AOR = 103.0443, 95% CI = 4.6278-7093.972, p = 0.0114). People who washed things in stream had 12 times significantly greater odds of infection than those that did not (AOR = 12.4585, 95% CI = 1.9590-258.8108, p = 0.02542). The distance of respondents to stream was a major determinant of infection with urinary schistosomiasis in the state. Those who lived close to water were approximately 1131% more likely to be infected than those who lived far from water bodies (AOR = 11.3157, 95% CI 2.2473-90.6889, p = 0.00713). Anambra State is endemic for urinary schistosomiasis. There is therefore a need for focal studies; and there may probably be a need to design a health program aimed at controlling the infection in focal areas in the state. The study also provides relevant information for designing a plan of action for the selective integrated and targeted control of urinary schistosomiasis in the LGAs.

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