Effectiveness of Isolated Hip Exercise, Knee Exercise, or Free Physical Activity for Patellofemoral Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Hott, A.; Brox, J.I.; Pripp, A.H.; Juel, N.G.; Paulsen, G.ør.; Liavaag, S.
American Journal of Sports Medicine 47(6): 1312-1322
ISSN/ISBN: 1552-3365 PMID: 30958707 DOI: 10.1177/0363546519830644
Exercise for patellofemoral pain (PFP) is traditionally knee focused, targeting quadriceps muscles. In recent years, hip-focused exercise has gained popularity. Patient education is likely an important factor but is underresearched. To compare 3 treatment methods for PFP, each combined with patient education: hip-focused exercise, knee-focused exercise, or free physical activity. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was performed with 112 patients who were 16 to 40 years old (mean, 27.6 years) and had a symptom duration >3 months (mean, 39 months) with a clinical diagnosis of PFP and no radiograph or magnetic resonance evidence of other pathology. Patients were randomized to a 6-week intervention consisting of patient education combined with isolated hip-focused exercise (n = 39), traditional knee-focused exercise (n = 37), or free physical activity (n = 36). The primary outcome was Anterior Knee Pain Scale (0-100) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes were visual analog scale for pain, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Knee Self-efficacy Scale, EuroQol, step-down, and isometric strength. There were no between-group differences in any primary or secondary outcomes at 3 months except for hip abduction strength and knee extension strength. Between-group differences at 3 months for Anterior Knee Pain Scale were as follows: knee versus control, 0.2 (95% CI, -5.5 to 6.0); hip versus control, 1.0 (95% CI, -4.6 to 6.6); and hip versus knee, 0.8 (95% CI, -4.8 to 6.4). The whole cohort of patients improved for all outcomes at 3 months except for knee extension strength. The authors found no difference in short-term effectiveness in combining patient education with knee-focused exercise, hip-focused exercise, or free training for patients with PFP. NCT02114294 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).