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The Previously Unidentified, Divergent Badnavirus Species Cacao red vein-banding virus is Associated with Cacao Swollen Shoot Disease in Nigeria

The Previously Unidentified, Divergent Badnavirus Species Cacao red vein-banding virus is Associated with Cacao Swollen Shoot Disease in Nigeria

Plant Disease 103(6): 1302-1308

Cacao swollen shoot disease (CSSD) of Theobroma cacao was reported in Nigeria in 1944; however, no badnaviral genome sequences have been found associated with the symptomatic trees. In 2017, leaf samples (n = 18) were collected from cacao trees from Osun and Oyo, Nigeria showing foliar symptoms that included red vein-banding and shoot swelling, and variable secondary mosaic, mottling, and fern-like pattern symptoms. Abutting primers designed around previously determined 500-bp intergenic region sequences were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Of the 18 samples, 9 yielded an approximately 7,000-bp, apparently genome-size product. The nine genomes were sequenced and found to encode four open reading frames, and to share 86 to 99% nucleotide identity. Pairwise analysis of the Nigerian genomes with 21 previously reported CSSD badnaviruses, at the complete genome and reverse-transcription ribonuclease H (1,230 bp) sequence levels, indicated 71 to 75 and 72 to 76% nucleotide identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the nine complete genomes indicated that the closest relatives of the divergent Nigerian isolates were previously described West African CSSD badnaviruses. Based on pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, the Nigerian CSSD isolates constitute a previously unrecognized Badnavirus sp., herein named Cacao red vein-banding virus (CRVBV). Primers designed based on the CRVBV genome sequences amplified a 1,068-bp fragment from 16 of 18 field samples tested by PCR, suggesting the possible existence of additional CRVBV variants.

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Accession: 066680446

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PMID: 30973298

DOI: 10.1094/pdis-09-18-1561-re

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