Comparative analysis of glyoxalase pathway genes in Erianthus arundinaceus and commercial sugarcane hybrid under salinity and drought conditions
Manoj, V.M.; Anunanthini, P.; Swathik, P.C.; Dharshini, S.; Ashwin Narayan, J.; Manickavasagam, M.; Sathishkumar, R.; Suresha, G.S.; Hemaprabha, G.; Ram, B.; Appunu, C.
Bmc Genomics 19(Suppl 9): 986
ISSN/ISBN: 1471-2164 PMID: 30999852 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-018-5349-7
Glyoxalase pathway is a reactive carbonyl species (RCS) scavenging mechanism involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), which is a reactive α-ketoaldehyde. In plants under abiotic stress, the cellular toxicity is reduced through glyoxalase pathway genes, i.e. Glyoxalase I (Gly I), Glyoxalase II (Gly II) and Glyoxalase III (Gly III). Salinity and water deficit stresses produce higher amounts of endogenous MG resulting in severe tissue damage. Thus, characterizing glyoxalase pathway genes that govern the MG metabolism should provide new insights on abiotic stress tolerance in Erianthus arundinaceus, a wild relative of sugarcane and commercial sugarcane hybrid (Co 86032). In this study, three glyoxalase genes (Glyoxalase I, II and III) from E. arundinaceus (a wild relative of sugarcane) and commercial sugarcane hybrid (Co 86032) were characterized. Comparative gene expression profiles (qRT-PCR) of Glyoxalase I, II and III under salinity and water deficit stress conditions revealed differential transcript expression with higher levels of Glyoxalase III in both the stress conditions. Significantly, E. arundinaceus had a higher expression level of glyoxalase genes compared to commercial sugarcane hybrid. On the other hand, gas exchange parameters like stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were declined to very low levels under both salt and drought induced stresses in commercial sugarcane hybrid when compared to E. arundinaceus. E. arundinaceus maintained better net photosynthetic rate compared to commercial sugarcane hybrid. The phylogenetic analysis of glyoxalase proteins showed its close evolutionary relationship with Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. Glyoxalase I and II were predicted to possess 9 and 7 isoforms respectively whereas, Glyoxalase III couldn't be identified as it comes under uncharacterized protein identified in recent past. Chromosomal mapping is also carried out for glyoxalase pathway genes and its isoforms. Docking studies revealed the binding affinities of glyoxalase proteins in both E. arundinaceus and commercial sugarcane hybrid with their substrate molecules. This study emphasizes the role of Glyoxalase pathway genes in stress defensive mechanism which route to benefit in progressive plant adaptations and serves as potential candidates for development of salt and drought tolerant crops.