The Effects of Choline and Magnesium Co-Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters, Inflammation, and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Rashvand, S.; Mobasseri, M.; Tarighat-Esfanjani, A.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 38(8): 714-721
ISSN/ISBN: 0731-5724 PMID: 31012803 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2019.1599745
Objective: To our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of choline and magnesium co-supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was investigation of the effects of the choline and magnesium co-supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in patients with T2DM.Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial was carried out among 96 diabetic patients. Ninety-six patients were randomly assigned to either choline, magnesium, choline-magnesium, or placebo for 2 months. Anthropometric measurement; metabolic, inflammatory, and endothelial markers; dietary intake; and physical activity were assessed at baseline and after treatment.Results: There was a significant change in serum magnesium in both magnesium and choline-magnesium groups (p < 0.05). Also, significant changes were observed in interleukin (IL)-6 levels in magnesium and choline-magnesium groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels decreased in choline and choline-magnesium groups (p < 0.05). When adjusted for potential confounders, inflammation and endothelial factors (IL-6 and VCAM-1) decreased significantly in the choline-magnesium group as compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Compared to baseline values there were no significant differences in all anthropometric measurements and metabolic factors among four groups (p > 0.05).Conclusions: Choline and magnesium co-supplementation was more effective in improving inflammation and endothelial dysfunction than supplementation with choline or magnesium alone.