+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Reference Values for Healthy Swallowing Across the Range From Thin to Extremely Thick Liquids



Reference Values for Healthy Swallowing Across the Range From Thin to Extremely Thick Liquids



Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 2019: 1-26



Purpose Thickened liquids are frequently used as an intervention for dysphagia, but gaps persist in our understanding of variations in swallowing behavior based on incremental thickening of liquids. The goal of this study was to establish reference values for measures of bolus flow and swallowing physiology in healthy adults across the continuum from thin to extremely thick liquids. Method A sex-balanced sample of 38 healthy adults underwent videofluoroscopy and swallowed 20% weight-to-volume concentration barium prepared in thin and slightly, mildly, moderately, and extremely thick consistencies using a xanthan gum thickener. Participants took comfortable sips and swallowed without a cue; sip volume was measured based on presip and postsip cup weights. A standard operating procedure (the ASPEKT method: Analysis of Swallowing Physiology: Events, Kinematics and Timing) was used to analyze videofluoroscopy recordings. Results The results clarify that, for thin liquid sips (10-14 ml), a single swallow without clearing swallows is typical and is characterized by complete laryngeal vestibule closure, complete pharyngeal constriction, and minimal postswallow residue. Aspiration was not seen, and penetration was extremely rare. Bolus position at swallow onset was variable, extending as low as the pyriform sinuses in 37% of cases. With thicker liquids, no changes in event sequencing, laryngeal vestibule closure, pharyngeal constriction, or postswallow residue were seen. The odds of penetration were significantly reduced. A longer timing interval until onset of the hyoid burst movement was seen, with an associated higher bolus position at swallow onset. Other timing measures remained unaffected by changes in bolus consistency. Conclusion The results include new reference data for swallowing in healthy adults across the range from thin to extremely thick liquids.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 066723838

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 31021676


Related references

Videoradiographic analysis of how carbonated thin liquids and thickened liquids affect the physiology of swallowing in subjects with aspiration on thin liquids. Acta Radiologica 44(4): 366-372, 2003

Preterm infant swallowing of thin and nectar-thick liquids: changes in lingual-palatal coordination and relation to bolus transit. Dysphagia 28(2): 234-244, 2014

Tongue pressure modulation during swallowing: water versus nectar-thick liquids. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 53(2): 273-283, 2010

Reference range values of hematological parameters in Saudi healthy adults. Saudi Medical Journal 20(10): 757-762, 1999

Reference range of capillary geometric values in apparently healthy probands between 6 and 65 years of age. Vasa. Supplementum 20: 109-112, 1987

Reference range of capillary geometric values of seemingly healthy subjects between the ages of 6 and 65 years. Vasa Supplementum (20): 109-112, 1987

Reference range values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in healthy Arab adult males. Saudi Medical Journal 30(11): 1395-1400, 2010

Are laboratory parameter (biomarker) values similar to the healthy volunteer reference range in all patient populations?. Drug Design, Development and Therapy 12: 2757-2773, 2018

A national policentric study for the definition of a reference range for normal values of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults. European Journal of Histochemistry 41 Suppl 2: 205-206, 1997

Commission on "Reference Values". Production of reference values in healthy subjects (document G, stage 3, version 1). Annales de Biologie Clinique 39(4): 235-244, 1981

An Italian national polycentric study for the definition of a reference range for normal values of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in healthy adults. British Journal of Haematology 102(1): 62, July 1, 1998

Must thin-thick transitions precede long-range critical wetting?. Physical Review Letters 85(19): 4188-4189, 2000

Variations in tongue-palate swallowing pressures when swallowing xanthan gum-thickened liquids. Dysphagia 29(6): 678-684, 2016

Blood values of healthy ewes of the merino and blackhead breed during parturition (reference values). Dtw. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 92(9): 319-322, 1985

Arterial blood gas, pH, and bicarbonate values in laying hens selected for thick or thin eggshell production. Poultry Science 64(5): 1015-1019, 1985