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Ocular Manifestations in Leukemias and Their Correlation with Hematologic Parameters at a Tertiary Care Setting in South India



Ocular Manifestations in Leukemias and Their Correlation with Hematologic Parameters at a Tertiary Care Setting in South India



Ophthalmology. Retina 2(1): 17-23



To determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations and the association of these manifestations with hematologic parameters among patients with leukemia attending a hemato-oncology unit at a tertiary care government hospital in South India. This was a cross-sectional observational study. All patients attending a hemato-oncology unit at a tertiary care government hospital in South India who were diagnosed with acute or chronic leukemia that was confirmed by a bone marrow biopsy. Consecutive patients with leukemia presenting at the hematology clinic underwent standardized leukemia blood workup and comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation. Patient demographics, the type of leukemia, ophthalmic features, and hematological parameters such as hemoglobin level, white blood cell count, and platelet counts were recorded. The association between ophthalmic manifestations and blood counts was analyzed using multivariable regression analysis. The study measured the prevalence of various ocular manifestations in different types of leukemias and their association with hematologic parameters. In total, 133 eyes of 133 patients were examined during the study period. The prevalence of leukemic ophthalmopathy was found to be 68% in cases of acute myeloid leukemia, 42% in cases of acute lymphoid leukemia, 33% in cases of chronic lymphoid leukemia, and 13% in cases of chronic myeloid leukemia. Vision-threatening complications such as subhyaloid hemorrhage involving the posterior pole (20%) and vitreous hemorrhage (10%) were seen exclusively in patients with acute leukemias. Multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for the type of leukemia, patient age, and white blood cell and platelet counts showed that the hemoglobin level was the only factor predictive of developing subhyaloid hemorrhage (every 1-g/L increment increase in hemoglobin level led to a 30% reduction in the likelihood of developing subhyaloid hemorrhage; 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.9; P = 0.02). The probability of developing subhyaloid hemorrhage was reduced by >50% when hemoglobin level improved from 5 to 7 g/L and when platelet count improved from 10 000 to 50 000 cells/mm3 for both types of acute leukemia. There was no association between white blood cell counts and ophthalmic manifestations. Leukemic ophthalmopathy is more common in acute and myeloid cases and less common in chronic and lymphoid subtypes. It is predominantly due to secondary rheological changes. Blood transfusion should be considered when hemoglobin level and platelet count decrease below 7 g/L and 50 000 cells/mm3, respectively, to prevent vision-threatening complications. Patients with acute leukemias should undergo ophthalmic screening at baseline and then periodically to prevent visual morbidity.

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Accession: 066746852

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PMID: 31047297

DOI: 10.1016/j.oret.2017.05.009


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