Molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections in children admitted to children's referral hospital of Qom, Iran
Pourakbari, B.; Mamishi, S.; Shokrollahi, M.R.; Heydari, H.; Mahmoudi, S.; Banar, M.; Sadeghi, R.H.; Movahedi, Z.
Annali di Igiene Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita 31(3): 252-262
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a highly prevalent infection among children and Escherichia coli is one of the most important pathogens causing pediatric UTIs. Production of extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is an important factor in the emergence of antibiotic resistance among these bacteria. This study aimed to determine the resistance patterns, the frequency of ESBL-encoding genes and the genetic diversity of E. coli strains isolated from children with UTIs who were admitted to children's referral hospital of Hazrat Masoumeh, Qom, Iran. A total of 102 consecutive non-duplicative strains of E.coli that were isolated from children with UTIs were included into the study. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. The ability of the isolates to produce ESBLs was phenotypically determined by both combined disk test and double disk synergy test. The ESBL encoding genes (bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM) in phenotypically confirmed ESBL-positive isolates was detected by PCR method. The genetic relatedness of the isolates was designated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR). Eighty-three percent (n=85) of the children were female. Most of the infected boys (88%, n=15) were less than 1 year of age and most of the infected girls (48%, n=41) aged 1 to 6 years old. The highest sensitivity was observed to nitrofurantoin (8%, n=8), followed by amikacin (12%, n=12) and piperacillin-tazobactam (17%, n=17). In contrast, the highest resistance rate was seen to ampicillin (94%, n=96) and cefazolin (93%, n=95). Eighty-eight percent (90 out of 102) of the strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Fifty-eight percent (n=59) of the strains were ESBL-positive and results of the combined disk test was in concordance with PCR. The blaCTX-M was the most frequent ESBL encoding gene (88%, n=52), followed by blaTEM (54%, n=32), and blaSHV (15%, n=9). Based on the ERIC-PCR technique, isolates were clustered in 13 different types. There was no relationship between different ERIC types and origin of the isolates (i.e. hospitalized or outpatients), ESBL-producing ability, and antibiotic resistance patterns. High prevalence of ESBL-positive isolates of E. coli (58%) was found in our study and all of them were MDR. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in the resistance rates of ESBL-producers, and non-producers to some antibiotics, which result in limiting their therapeutic options. Continuous surveillance of the emergence of ESBL-producing isolates and their antibiotic resistance profiles as well as using appropriate typing methods is needed for reducing their spread, selecting appropriate treatment regimens and finding hospital outbreaks.