Food group and macronutrient intakes, trial years 16, in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial
Gorder, D.D.; Bartsch, G.E.; Tillotson, J.L.; Grandits, G.A.; Stamler, J.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65(1): 258S-271S
This chapter presents changes in dietary intake reported by men in the special intervention (SI) and usual care (UC) groups from baseline through 6 y of follow-up in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Changes in nutrients by SI men after 1 y of following the intensive intervention program were as follows: reduced intake of total fat (from 38.4% to 34.3% of energy), saturated fatty acids (14.2% to 10.4% of energy), and cholesterol (448 to 263 mg/d), and increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (from 6.4% to 8.6% of energy). These changes were maintained and did not increase through the remaining 5 y. UC men reported small changes in similar directions. Most of the change in saturated fatty acid intake by SI participants was from high-fat meat and high- and medium-fat dairy products. Reduction in dietary cholesterol was achieved primarily by substantial decreases in intake of eggs and high-fat meats. Several baseline factors were associated with amount of dietary change in SI men. Greater changes were seen in men with higher baseline serum cholesterol concentrations, in those not consuming a special diet, in nonsmokers followed by lighter smokers, in hypertensive than in non-hypertensive men, in older participants, in white than in black men, in moderate drinkers than in nondrinkers or those consuming > or = 22 drinks/wk, and in those with no "stressful life events" than in those reporting one or more life events.