Section 68
Chapter 67,647

Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Balb/c Mouse: A Comparison of the Efficacy of a Nonionic Surfactant Formulation of Sodium Stibogluconate with Those of Three Proprietary Formulations of Amphotericin B

Mullen, A.B.; Baillie, A.J.; Carter, K.C.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 42(10): 2722-2725


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
DOI: 10.1128/aac.42.10.2722
Accession: 067646264

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In this study, treatment efficacies of a nonionic surfactant vesicle formulation of sodium stibogluconate (SSG-NIV) and of several formulations of amphotericin B were compared in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Treatment with multiple doses of AmBisome, Abelcet, and Amphocil (total dose, 12.5 mg of amphotericin B/kg of body weight) resulted in a significant suppression of parasite burdens in liver (P < 0.0005) and spleen (P < 0.0005) compared with those of controls, with Abelcet having the lowest activity. Only AmBisome and Amphocil gave significant suppression of parasites in bone marrow (compared to control values, P < 0.005). In the acute-infection model, single-dose treatments of SSG-NIV (296 mg of SbV/kg), SSG solution (296 mg of SbV/kg), or AmBisome (8 mg of amphotericin B/kg) were equally effective against liver parasites (compared to control values, P < 0.0005). SSG-NIV and AmBisome treatment also significantly suppressed parasites in bone marrow and spleen (P < 0.005), with SSG-NIV treatment being more suppressive (>98% suppression in all three sites). Free-SSG treatment failed to suppress spleen or bone marrow parasites. Infection status influenced treatment outcome. In the chronic-infection model, the AmBisome single-dose treatment was less effective in all three infection sites and the SSG-NIV single-dose treatment was less effective in the spleen. The results of this study suggest that the antileishmanial efficacy of SSG-NIV compares favorably with those of the novel amphotericin B formulations.

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