Differences in Expression, Affinity, and Function of Soluble (s) Il-4R and sIl-13R2 Suggest Opposite Effects on Allergic Responses
Khodoun, M.; Lewis, C.; Yang, J.-Q.; Orekov, T.; Potter, C.; Wynn, T.; Mentink-Kane, M.; Khurana Hershey, G.K.; Wills-Karp, M.; Finkelman, F.D.
The Journal of Immunology 179(10): 6429-6438
IL-4 and IL-13 are each bound by soluble receptors (sRs) that block their activity. Both of these sRs (sIL-4Ralpha and sIL-13Ralpha2) are present in low nanogram per milliliter concentrations in the serum from unstimulated mice, but differences in affinity and half-life suggest differences in function. Serum IL-4/sIL-4Ralpha complexes rapidly dissociate, releasing active IL-4, whereas sIL-13Ralpha2 and IL-13 form a stable complex that has a considerably longer half-life than uncomplexed IL-13, sIL-13Ralpha2, IL-4, or sIL-4Ralpha. Approximately 25% of sIL-13Ralpha2 in serum is complexed to IL-13; this percentage and the absolute quantity of sIL-13Ralpha2 in serum increase considerably during a Th2 response. sIL-13Ralpha2 gene expression is up-regulated by both IL-4 and IL-13; the effect of IL-4 is totally IL-4Ralpha-dependent while the effect of IL-13 is partially IL-4Ralpha-independent. Inhalation of an IL-13/sIL-13Ralpha2 complex does not affect the expression of IL-13-inducible genes but increases the expression of two genes, Vnn1 and Pira-1, whose products activate APCs and promote neutrophilic inflammation. These observations suggest that sIL-4Ralpha predominantly sustains, increases, and diffuses the effects of IL-4, whereas sIL-13Ralpha2 limits the direct effects of IL-13 to the site of IL-13 production and forms a stable complex with IL-13 that may modify the quality and intensity of an allergic inflammatory response.