A case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis preceded by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Sakai, W.; Matsui, N.; Fujita, K.; Izumi, Y.; Nishida, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Kanbayashi, T.; Kaji, R.

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 54(7): 556-560

2014


ISSN/ISBN: 0009-918X
DOI: 10.5692/clinicalneurol.54.556
Accession: 068511414

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Abstract
A 36-year-old woman complained of general malaise. She presented with hyponatremia and plasma osmotic pressure was lower than urinary osmotic pressure. In addition, serum antidiuretic hormone level was higher than the measurement sensitivity. She was diagnosed with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). She fell into a coma despite correction of serum sodium level. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high signal intensities in the cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Spinal MRI revealed a longitudinally extending lesion in the cervical cord. Serum sample was positive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, supporting the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. In patients with NMOSD, the immune reaction can gradually cause destructive changes of the hypothalamus and lead to unstable ADH secretion in the absence of immunomodulatory treatment.