Effect of EMG biofeedback and progressive muscle relaxation training on awareness of frontalis muscle tension
Sime, W.E.; DeGood, D.E.
Psychophysiology 14(6): 522-530
ISSN/ISBN: 0048-5772 PMID: 337338 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1977.tb01192.x
Awareness of muscle tension, as estimated by a modification of the Kinsman procedure, was examined before and after volunteer subjects [Ss] underwent 4 sessions of either EMG [electromyograph] biofeedback (BF) training, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training or a placebo-control (MC) procedure which involved listening to music as an alleged guide for relaxation. The Ss were 30 females (mean age = 28.3 yr) responding to an offering of experimental treatmen for anxiety and tension. Measurements of frontalis muscle tension (EMG) and P(c) were made before and after training. EMG apparently was significantly reduced by BF and PMR training but not by the MC procedure. Increases in P(c) after training were significantly greater for BF than for PMR or MC training. There were no group differences for subjective report of tension. Correlations between pre- to post-training EMG and P(c) change scores were significant only for the BF group and the combined group of BF and PMR Ss. BF and PMR training were effective in producing frontalis EMG reductions. The following relationship may exist among training groups in terms of relative influence upon awareness of tension: BF training > PMR training > MC training. Awareness of tension was apparently related to ability to reduce EMG, although the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear.