Pharmacokinetics and clinical studies of ceftizoxime in newborn and premature infants

Toyonaga, Y.; Sugita, M.; Hori, M.

Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 41(8): 1065-1086

1988


ISSN/ISBN: 0368-2781
PMID: 3050190
Accession: 068573573

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Abstract
Serum concentrations and urinary recovery rates of ceftizoxime (CZX) were investigated in 13 mature newborns and 16 premature newborns (with ages 1-17 days) after one shot intravenous injection of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, for treatment and prophylaxis of various infections. Obtained data were studied comparatively among the 3 groups, i.e. the 1st group (age: 0-3 days), 2nd group (age: 4-7 days) and 3rd group (age: 8 days or older). The clinical investigation was made in 9 male and 6 female newborns aged 3-34 days including 4 pediatrics patients with septicemia (1 with purulent meningitis, 1 with urinary tract infection, 1 with Staphylococcal pneumonia and 1 without complication), 1 with maxillary sinusitis, 5 with bronchopneumonia and 5 with urinary tract infections. 1. Serum concentrations and urinary recovery rates (1) Mature newborns given one shot intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg Serum concentrations of the drug in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups in 30 minutes after one shot intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg peaked at 18.9-23.3 micrograms/ml, without any significant differences, and thereafter gradually declined to 2.10-4.99 micrograms/ml at 8 hours. Serum half-lives were shorter in older subjects and values in the 3 groups were 3.89, 2.99 and 2.35 hours, respectively. Urinary recovery rates ranged from 55.5% to 70.0% at 8-6 hours in the 3 patients. (2) Mature newborns given one shot intravenous injection of 20 mg/kg Serum concentrations of the drug in the 3 groups peaked in 30 minutes after one shot intravenous injection of 20 mg/kg at, respectively, 36.9, 41.4 and 38.4 micrograms/ml, and thereafter they gradually declined to 9.0, 7.3 and 4.5 micrograms/ml at 8 hours, respectively. Serum half-lives were shorter in older subjects and values in the 3 groups were 3.59, 2.93 and 2.49 hours, respectively. Urinary recovery rates ranged from 43.5 to 78.2% within 12 hours in 2 patients, within 8 hours in 2 patients and within 6 hours in 1 patient. (3) Premature newborns given one shot intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg Serum concentrations of the drug in the 3 groups peaked in 30 minutes after one shot intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg at, respectively, 27.9, 21.5 and 23.0 micrograms/ml, and they gradually declined thereafter to 10.8, 6.2 and 6.5 micrograms/ml at 8 hours, respectively. Serum half-lives were shorter in older subjects and values in the 3 groups were 5.28, 4.43 and 4.24 hours, respectively.