+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Landscape epidemiology of mosquito-borne canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in northern California, USA. I. Community-based surveys of domestic dogs in three landscapes



Landscape epidemiology of mosquito-borne canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in northern California, USA. I. Community-based surveys of domestic dogs in three landscapes



Journal of Medical Entomology 21(1): 1-16



Endemic patterns of canine filariasis in northern California were studied in 3 communities differing in ecological landscape: Tehama City (riparian-agricultural), Palo Cedro (oak-pine woodland), and Cedar Ridge (conifer-oak forest). Dog populations were surveyed by household for canine-infecting filariids: both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic patent D. immitis infections were documented (Knott, IFA/ELISA [indirect fluorescent antibody/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay] tests). Of 403 dogs resident in these communities, 111 were on preventive diethylcarbamazine (DEC) citrate therapy (55% tested), and 292 had no recent DEC history (87% tested). D. immitis was highly endemic in all communities, with point prevalence rates of 34.3% (Tehama City), 28.0% (Cedar Ridge), and 21.1% (Palo Cedro). Amicrofilaremic occult infections constituted 14-29% of total cases. The frequency distribution of microfilaremic densities in community dogs was highly skewed (median = 4040 mf/ml). Dipetalonema reconditum microfilariae were found in 4.9% of dogs in the Tehama community. Significant heartworm risk factors were residence period, exposure and sex as determined from stepwise logistic regression analysis. Heartworm risk increased with length of residence, compared to a reference population resident .ltoreq. 1 year. Adjusted odds ratios (R) were 3.1 in dogs resident 1-3 yr, 5.5 (3-5 yr), and 12.2 (> 5 yr) (98.7% confidence). Dogs kept strictly outside were at 5.4.times. greater risk of patent heartworm disease than animals kept indoors for at least part of the 24-h day (97.5% confidence). Increased risk was also quantified for sprayed females (R = 4.2) and for all males (R = 3.0), compared to intact females (98.3% confidence). Heartworm cases in Cedar Ridge were clustered adjacent to areas of disrupted forest landscape, suggesting a focal mosquito vector originating from the disturbed area. In Tehama City, cases were evenly scattered throughout the town, suggesting highly dispersive mosquito vector populations. The spatial distribution of cases in Palo Cedro indicated a woodland-associated vector with limited dispersal ability. D. reconditum cases were mostly clustered by neighborbood in Tehama City.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 068627879

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 6141294

DOI: 10.1093/jmedent/21.1.1


Related references

Landscape Epidemiology of Mosquito-Borne Canine Heartworm (Dirofilaria Immitis) in Northern California, Usa I. Community-based surveys of domestic dogs in three landscapes. Journal of Medical Entomology 21(1): 1-16, 1984

Landscape epidemiology of mosquito borne canine heartworm dirofilaria immitis in northern california usa 1. community based surveys of domestic dogs in 3 landscapes. Journal of Medical Entomology 21(1): 1-16, 1984

Landscape epidemiology of mosquito-borne canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in northern California. Mosquito control research: annual report: 0-24, 1982

Mosquito-borne heartworm Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Australia. Parasites and Vectors 9(1): 535, 2016

Epidemiology of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in domestic dogs in Ontario, Canada: Geographic distribution, risk factors and effects of climate. Geospatial Health 14(1):, 2019

Canine heartworm: disease focus along the lower Colorado River Dirofilaria immitis, Culex erythrothorax, mosquito as vector, southern California. Proceedings and papers of the annual conference of the California Mosquito and Vector Control Association: ub 1982) (49th) 5-8, 1982

Update on canine heartworm disease Dirofilaria immitis, dogs. Scientific proceedings of the annual meeting American Animal Hospital Association: 0th) 259-261, 1983

Some potential mosquito vectors of the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in the Calgary region of southern Alberta. Canadian journal of zoology = Journal canadien de zoologie 61(5): 1156-1158, 1983

Coyotes canis latrans and canine heartworm dirofilaria immitis in california usa. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16(2): 217-222, 1980

Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal. Parasite 21: 5, 2014

Prevalence of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis Leidy) in coyotes from five northern California counties. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 31(5): 968-972, 1982

Prevalence of the heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis Leidy) in coyotes from five northern California counties). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 315: 968-972, 1982

Seroprevalence of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in feline and canine hosts from central and northern Portugal. Journal of Helminthology 89(5): 625-629, 2015

Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania. Geospatial Health 11(3): 499, 2016

Incidence of canine heartworm dirofilaria immitis in wild raccoon dogs in the central area of japan. Japanese Journal of Parasitology 31(3): 177-184, 1982