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Coronaviruses



Coronaviruses



Uirusu 61(2): 205-210



Coronaviruses contain positive-stranded RNA with ca. 30 kb as a genome, which is wrapped by the envelope, and constitute Nidovirales together with Arteriviridae. The feature of viruses in Nidovirales is the unique structure of the mRNA set, called 3' co-terminal nested set. Coronaviruses have several to more than 10 different species of subgenomic mRNA and generally only the OFR located in the 5' end of each mRNA is translated. The 5' 20 kb of the coronavirus genome or mRNA-1 consists of two ORFs, 1a and 1b, between that there is a unique RNA structure called pseudoknot. From mRNA-1, 1a as well as 1a+1b are translated; the latter 1a+1b results from the translation due to ribosomal frame-shifting facilitated by the pseudoknot structure. From those two proteins, totally 16 proteins are produced as a result of auto-cleavage by the proteases included in la protein. Those proteins exhibit different functions, such as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, helicase, proteases and proteins that regulate cellular functions, mRNAs smaller than mRNA-2 translate in general the structural proteins, nucleocapsid (N) protein, spike (S) protein, integrated membrane (M) protein and envelope (E) proteins. Those proteins assemble to the vesicles located from ER to Golgi (ER Golgi intermediate compartment) and virions bud into the vesicles. Those virions are released from infected cells via exocytosis.

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Accession: 068900552

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PMID: 22916567


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