Section 69
Chapter 68,909

Phase 1 study of cetuximab in combination with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced anal canal carcinoma

Olivatto, L.O.; Vieira, F.M.; Pereira, B.V.; Victorino, A.P.; Bezerra, M.; Araujo, C.M.; Erlich, F.; Faroni, L.; Castro, L.; Lusis, E.C.; Marins, A.; Ferreira, C.G.

Cancer 119(16): 2973-2980


ISSN/ISBN: 1097-0142
PMID: 23674135
DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28045
Accession: 068908090

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This study sought to determine the feasibility and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of the combination of cetuximab with chemoradiotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CP) in locally advanced anal canal carcinoma. Cetuximab was administered on days 1, 8, 15, 29, 36, 43, and 50 (400 mg/m(2) initial dose, then 250 mg/m(2) /week) concurrent with total dose radiation of 55 to 59 Gy, both starting on day 1. Escalating doses of 5-FU (96-hour infusion) and CP (2-hour infusion), both on days 1 and 29, were administered according to the following design: starting dose level (0) 5-FU/CP = 800/60 mg/m(2) /day and up to dose level (+2) 5-FU/CP = 1000/80 mg/m(2) /day. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) events (uncontrolled diarrhea or febrile neutropenia) occurred in 3 of 14 assessable patients receiving escalated dose of 5-FU/CP, with 1 in dose level (0) and 2 in dose level (+2). The RP2D was 5-FU/CP = 800/80 mg/m(2) /day. Because of unexpected non-DLT treatment-related grade 3 (G3) adverse events (AEs) such as thrombosis/embolism, syncope, and infection occurring in ≥ 20% of patients, a safety expansion cohort with an additional 9 patients was investigated with the RP2D. The most frequent G3/G4 AEs evaluated in 23 patients were radiation dermatitis (12 patients), diarrhea (10 patients), thrombosis/embolism (6 patients), and infection (5 patients). The study was closed due to these severe AEs, although no G5 AEs occurred. Twenty of 21 patients (95%) achieved pathological complete response at primary tumor. With a median follow-up of 43.4 months, the 3-year locoregional control rate was 64.2%. Cetuximab could not be integrated with chemoradiotherapy-cisplatin-based therapy due to the high toxicity rate. However, efficacy is encouraging and further investigation of an epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted agent (other than cetuximab) concurrent with chemoradiation should be pursued.

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