Different origins of paralogues of salmonid TNR1 and TNFR2: Characterisation and expression analysis of four TNF receptor genes in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss
Hong, S.; Wang, T.-Y.; Secombes, C.J.; Wang, T.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 99: 103403
Mammalian TNFR1 and TNFR2 bind TNFα and TNFβ, and provide key communication signals to a variety of cell types during development and immune responses that are crucial for cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis. In teleost fish TNFβ is absent but TNFα has been expanded by the third whole genome duplication (3R WGD) and again by a 4R WGD in some lineages, leading to the four TNFα paralogues known in salmonids. Two paralogues for each of TNFR1 and TNFR2 have been cloned in rainbow trout in this study and are present in other salmonid genomes. Whilst the TNFR2 paralogues were generated via the 4R salmonid WGD, the TNFR1 paralogues arose from a local en bloc duplication. Functional diversification of TNFR paralogues was evidenced by differential gene expression and modulation, upstream ATGs affecting translation, ATTTA motifs in the 3'-UTR regulating mRNA stability, and post-translational modification by N-glycosylation. Trout TNFR are highly expressed in immune tissues/organs, and other tissues, in a gene- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, their expression is differentially modulated by PAMPs and cytokines in a cell type- and stimulant-specific manner. Such findings suggest an important role of the TNF/TNFR axis in the immune response and other physiological processes in fish.