Guard Cell Microfilament Analyzer Facilitates the Analysis of the Organization and Dynamics of Actin Filaments in Arabidopsis Guard Cells

Li, X.; Diao, M.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, G.; Huang, S.; Chen, N.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20(11)

2019


ISSN/ISBN: 1422-0067
PMID: 31195605
DOI: 10.3390/ijms20112753
Accession: 069053860

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Abstract
The actin cytoskeleton is involved in regulating stomatal movement, which forms distinct actin arrays within guard cells of stomata with different apertures. How those actin arrays are formed and maintained remains largely unexplored. Elucidation of the dynamic behavior of differently oriented actin filaments in guard cells will enhance our understanding in this regard. Here, we initially developed a program called 'guard cell microfilament analyzer' (GCMA) that enables the selection of individual actin filaments and analysis of their orientations semiautomatically in guard cells. We next traced the dynamics of individual actin filaments and performed careful quantification in open and closed stomata. We found that de novo nucleation of actin filaments occurs at both dorsal and ventral sides of guard cells from open and closed stomata. Interestingly, most of the nucleated actin filaments elongate radially and longitudinally in open and closed stomata, respectively. Strikingly, radial filaments tend to form bundles whereas longitudinal filaments tend to be removed by severing and depolymerization in open stomata. By contrast, longitudinal filaments tend to form bundles that are severed less frequently in closed stomata. These observations provide insights into the formation and maintenance of distinct actin arrays in guard cells in stomata of different apertures.