Development, Spatial Distribution, and Presence on Grapevine of Nymphs of Orientus ishidae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) , a new Vector of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasmas
Lessio, F.; Bocca, F.; Alma, A.
Journal of Economic Entomology 112(6): 2558-2564
Orientus ishidae (Matsumura) (subfamily Deltocephalinae) is an Asian species now widespread in Europe, and a vector of 16SrV phytoplasmas agents of grapevine Flavescence dorée (FDP). Embryonic and post-embryonic development, spatial distribution, and relationships with grapevine of nymphs were studied under field and laboratory conditions. Egg-hatching dynamics and post-embryonic development of nymphs were studied by collecting grapevine wood from managed and unmanaged vineyards (including bot European Vitis vinifera L., and wild American rootstocks) and storing it inside rearing cages at T = 21-23°C. Field sampling of nymphs were made on both grapevine and two elective host plants of O. ishidae: hazelnut and hornbeam. Taylor's Power Law was applied to assess the aggregation coefficient of early- (first and second) and late- (third to fifth) life instars on leaves and shoots of host plants. More nymphs were obtained from wood collected in unmanaged rather than managed vineyards. Under lab conditions, the embryonic development lasted 34-48 d, whereas the whole post-embryonic development averaged 27 d. Under field conditions, early instars peaked at the end of May, and late instars peaked 2-4 wk later. The aggregation patterns decreased from early to late instars, and from leaves to shoots. Very few nymphs were observed on unmanaged grapevine, either European or American, and none on managed European grapevine. Some behavioral and FDP epidemiological consequences of the results obtained are discussed.